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( '0f>y right, 1886, 


All K iff/its Reserved, 









THIS volume is a reprint of newspaper reports 
of a series of lectures delivered by the author from 
the pulpit of Congregation B'nai Jehudah, Kan- 
sas City, Mo., during the Fall and Winter of 

The lectures were prepared to fulfill the re- 
quirements of popular discourses, and designed to 
convey information upon a highly important epoch 
of the world's history, that is almost neglected 
in English literature. 

The thought of publishing these lectures in 
book form was utterly foreign to the author through- 
out their preparation, until an urgent solicitation 
from very many persons, both Jews and Gentiles, 
in all parts of this country, whose interest in 
these lectures was aroused by their wide-spread 
republication by the Press, made it a duty. 

Kansas City, Mo., January, 1887. 

The following are two of the many letters ad- 
dressed to the author, requesting him to have his 
lectures on "THE JEWS AND MOORS IN SPAIN" pub- 
lished in book form. 


Ex-Governor of the State of Missouri. 

KANSAS CITY, Mo., MARCH 29, 1886. 

DEAR SIR: Having read with pleasure and edification 
the series of lectures delivered in the Synagogue, Kansas 
City, Mo., entitled "THE JEWS AND MOORS IN SPAIN, "in which 
you treat of the social, political, religious and intellectual life 
of these Oriental nations, may I inquire if it is your purpose 
to have them published in book form? 

I think the lectures too valuable, too full of prolonged 
historic research and thought to live only one day in the 
columns of a daily newspaper. Even if they were designed 
"to adorn a tale or point a moral" of the great race to 
which you belong, whose history commenced with Abraham 
and will end with that of the human race, still the history 
of that race was (and is) so intimately interlaced with the 
history of the other races for the intervening centuries, that 
the lectures are in part, so much the history of the other 
races, that they can be read and studied by all men without 
prejudice or animosity One thing is certain, you have in 
the lectures divested history of much of its dry and useless 
details, and make it a thrilling romance of facts, presented 
in the simplest and purest Anglo-Saxon language. 

I know not how others view the lectures, only speak this 
for myself no library is complete without the History of 
the Jewish race, and no history of that race for the period 
covered, is more comprehensive, truthful and impartial than 
that presented in these lectures. I think the book would 
find a ready sale in all thinking, reading communities. 

Very Truly Yours, 



Judge of the U. S. Court, Western District of Missouri. 

KANSAS CITY, Mo , APRIL -2, 1886. 

MY DEAR SIR: Having attended a number of your lec- 
and read such as I did not hear, allow me to give expression 
to my views regarding the same. Aside from the interest 
the student of history must always feel in that part of history 
of which your lectures treat, the manner of treatment 
specially interested me. Relating historical facts, too often 
becomes dry and irksome, and it requires more than ordin- 
ary skill of presentation to make the subject interesting and 
attractive. In this you have fully succeeded by interweav- 
ing with the facts those matters which enliven the picture. 
A knowledge of the social condition of a people, and the 
relation to which they stand to their age, enables us to 
judge of their worth and the influence they exercised. Your 
lectures, as a whole, presented a life-breathing social picture 
of the times and people, and as the civilization of Europe 
was largely effected by the Jews and Moors, their history 
embraces to a large extent the history of civilization, and 
thereby acquires an interest not limited to the people and 
countries of which your lectures give so interesting an ac- 
count. A publication in permanent form of your lectures 
would advance our knowledge of that part of history to 
which we have always looked for instruction and guidance, 
and I hope you may find a way of accomplishing this object. 

Very Respectfully, 


DAY, APRIL 24, 1886. 

THE JOURNAL published yesterday morning the eighteenth 
and last of the series of lectures delivered by Rabbi Kraus- 
kopf on "THE JEW AND MOOR IN SPAIN." From first to last 
these lectures have been of absorbing interest. The Syn- 
agogue has been crowded on the occasion of their delivery? 
and it was with regret that the Rabbi's hearers heard that 
the lecture on Friday night was the last of the series. 

It is the purpose of Rabbi Krauskopf to have his 
lectures issued in book form. They will make an attractive 
volume, and will no doubt be widely read. Rabbi Kraus- 
kopf is a graphic writer, and his lectures upon "THE TEW AND 
MOOR IN SPAIN" are a series of historical occurrences re- 
lated in a manner that serves to chain the reader's atten- 
tion old world scenes are accurately and vividly de- 
scribed. The reader is taken through all the struggles, 
the defeats and the triumphs of the Jews. Their arts, their 
industry, their upright dealings and their steadfast adherence 
to their religion through trials and persecutions are related 
with a proud belief that they were God's chosen people, 
working out their destiny according to His will. The 
lecturer started with the Jews as he found them, a prosperous 
community in southwestern Europe, busily engaged in trans- 
forming Spain into a granery and garden spot of Europe, 
respected by their heathen neighbors, happy and contented. 
He passed on to the period of persecution in the Sixth 
Century when Christianity of a somewhat forcible nature 
attempted the conversion of the Jews by persecution; when 
many were massacred and others driven into exile. Then 
came the Arab invasion and during the period of Moham- 

medan supremacy the Jews were again allowed to live in 
peace and the exercise of their own religious rites. For 
eight centuries the Jews and the Moors worked side by side 
and the once down-trodden people rose to affluence and 
high position. 

With the decline of Mohammedan power, and the ex- 
pulsion of the Moors by the' Spaniards, the Jews were again 
reduced to a pitiable state. Spain arose to enormous 
power, but that, too, has waned, and the population of 
30,000,000 people has dwindled to about half that number. 
The manufactures, the commerce and the agricultural, 
the universal prosperity which the Jews had built up disap- 
peared, and the glory of Spain departed as rapidly as it had 
been acquired. In the expulsion of the Jews and Moors 
alone does Rabbi Krauskopf attribute the ruin of Spain. 

The lectures read like a romance. They are an historical 
romance, told in a charming manner, full of descriptions 
accurate, truthful. When they are compiled the volume 
will undoubtedly meet with a large sale. It was not the 
original intention of the Rabbi to issue his lectures in book 
form, but many people, both Jews and Chrstians, have 
requested him verbally and by letter to do so, and he has 
decided to grant their requests. 








Continued 2 1-33 








Continued 69-8 1 






IN THE SCIENCES. . .112-122 


Ix LITERATURE ....................... 123-147 

IN PHILOSOPHY ...................... 148-158 

IN THE INDUSTRIES ................... 159-170 



THE INQUISITION ..................... 1 7 1 - 1 88 

THE EXPULSION OF THE JEWS ........... 189-205 

THE DISPERSION OF THE JEWS .......... 206-224 


EFFECT OF THE EXPULSION ............. 225-240 

INDEX .............................. 242 




Six and Eight and Ten Centuries Back in the World's 
History. .Our Entrance into Spain. . .A Miracle. .The 
Beautiful Guadalaquivir. .Our Bronze Complexioned 
Oarsman . . Fair Cordova . . The City of the Arts and 
Sciences. .Night. .A Serenade. .Our Departure. 


Upon The Ocean. Desolate Europe .. Longing After 
Cordova. .Southern Spain Contrasted with the Rest 
of Europe. .Revolting Uncleanliness. .Ascetic Monks 
Establish the Belief that Cleanliness of Body Leads 
to Pollution of Soul . . Intellect Fettered Hand and Foot 
..Clergy Retarding Progress .. Secular Knowledge 





Continued 2 i -33 

Gross Superstitions. .A Crucifix that Shed Tears of 
Blood. .The Virgin's House Carried Through the Ail- 
by Angels. .Satan in the Form of a Beautiful Woman 
. .Scenes in Hell. .The Burning of Witches. .A King 
who Cannot Write his Name. .Feudal Lords as High- 
way Robbers. .The Serfdom of the Peasants. .Return 
to Cordova. 


Cordova at Day Break. .The Mohammedan Sabbath 
..The Youth of Cordova Disports itself upon the 
Water. . Song. .Challenge between Oarsman.. The 
Muezzin's Call. .The Great Mosque.. A Sermon.. 
Chasdai Ibn Shaprut, the Jewish Minister to the 
Caliph. .. Dunash Ibn Labrat..On the Way to 
Abdallah Ibn Xamri, the Moorish Poet. 


Abdallah Tells the Early History of the Arabs.. 
Miracles at the Birth of Mohammed. .The Angel, 
Gabriel Writes the Koran upon Palm Leaves. .Ten 
Decisive Years in the History of Religion. .Beautiful 
Zealica. .Arab-Moors Checked in their Conquest.. 


Quarrel between King Roderick and Count Julian, 
Father of the Insulted Florinda. .Jews Ally with the 
Wronged Father. .Andalusia Conquered. 


The Synagogue of Cordova. . The Daughters of Israel 
Preparing for the Sabbath . . The Throne of the "Nasi" 
..Rabbi Moses Ben Chanoch. .The Eloquence of 
Silence . . A Tearful Scene . Three Rabbis Taken Cap- 
tive by Pirates. .Evil Designs against Chanoch's 
Young and Beautiful Wife.. Sold as Slave to Cordova 
. . His Miraculous Rise. 



Continued 69-8 1 

The Evening Service. .A Beautiful Custom in Israel. . 
Honored with a Invitation to Chasdai's House.. 
Illuminated Streets. .The Two Angels. .An Ideal 
Sabbath in an Ideal Home.. The Praise of the 
Virtuous Woman.. A Father's Blessing. .Presented 
to the Ladies. .The Evening Meal.. The Jewish 
Kingdom of the Khozars. 



Chasdai's Library. .His Aero unt of the Entrance of 
the Jews into Europe. .The Destruction of Jerusalem 
. . A Terrible Carnage. . . Israel Ceases as a Nation . . 

xv iii. CONTENTS. 

The Diaspora .. The Daughter- Religions Thrive upon 
the Sufferings they Inflict Upon the Mother-Religion 
. .The Indestructibility of Israel. .Humiliated but Not 


Jews Settle in Spain During the Reign of King 
Solomon. .Jewish Agricultural Skill makes Andalusia 
the Garden Spot of Europe .. Prosperity the Great 
Crime of the Jews. .The Beginning of Jewish Perse- 
cutions in Europe .. Cruel Laws. .Vengeance. .The 
Jews Conspire with Count Julian and Moors against 
Spain . .Victory . . Moorish Appreciation of the Services 
of the Jews. 



The Fifteenth Century. .A Change in the Fortunes of 
the Jews and Moors.. An Examination into their 
Great Achievments. .Their Skill in Medical Science. . 
Miracle Cure by Christian Clergy. .Jewish Body Phy- 
sicians Highly Prized and Much Sought. .Prominent 
Medical Schools and Eminent Physicians. .Rashi. . 
Ibn Ezra..Ibn Tibbon. .Maimonides. . Avenzoar 




Marvelous Intellectual Superiority of Moors and Jews 
..Moors Excel the Jews in the Sciences.. 
They Introduce the Mathematical Sciences. Their 
Progress in Astronomy . .Absurd Refutations l>y the 
Christian Clergy. .The Researches into Chemistry, 
Zoology and Geology. .They Anticipate Modern Dis- 
coveries. . Europe's Ingratiude. 

IN LITERATURE 1 23- 1 47 

Spain's Prosperity Stimulates Literature. . Lavish Pro- 
visions for Education. .Caliphs Patrons of Learning. . 
Vast Libraries Embodying theKnovledge of the Day 
. . Poetry Especially Fostered . . Story-telling. .Jewish 
and Moorish Poetry Contrasted . .Jehuda Ha Levy 
. . Charisi . . Gabirol . . Moses Ben Ezra. 


Alexandria, the Intellectual Metropolis of the World . . 
A Prodigious Stimulus Given to Learning. .The 
Septuagint. .Development ofGrecian Philosophy into 


Aristotlianis'.n. .This Engrafted on J ewish Theology . . 
Opposition of Christianity to Aristotlianism. . Aver- 
roes.. Moses Maimonides. Opposition Unsuccessful. 



Intellectual Greatness of Moors and Jews Induced 
by Their Material Prosperity. .Remarkable Develop- 
ment of Agriculture. .New Discoveries in Every 
Industry .. Mining a Specialty . .The Magnet, 
Mariner's Compass Mechanical Apparatus. .Spread of 
Commerce Leads to General Awakening <>f Europe 
that Ends Middle Ages. 


Jewish and Moorish Intellectual Advance followed 
by Physical Decline. .This Decline the Cause of Their 
Downfall . .The Spaniard Again Ruler Over Spain. . 
The Inquisition Established. .To Escape it, Jews 
Become "New Christians". .Christianity no Help to 
the Jews. .Thomas de Torquemada. .The Tortures of 
the Inquisition .. A Public Hum ing. 



Torquemada Resolves Upon Immediate Expulsion 
of all Unconverted Jews.. The Fatal Edict.. The 
Spaniards Moved to Pity . . Don Isaac Abarbanel 


Pleads with the Queen.. The Queen Hesitates.. 
Torquemada, the Fiend, Conquers Again. .The 111- 
fate.l Jews Seek Among the Dead the Pity which 
the Living Refuse. .The Departure. 


Exiles Transported on Ships. .Heart-rending Scenes 
on Board a Ship. .Set Ashore on Deserted Islands to 
Starve. .Starving Jews Given the Choice Between 
Death and Christianity . .Merciful Italy. .Crafty 
Portugal. .Torquemada's Edict Eclipsed .. The Ex- 
pulsion of the Jews From Portugal . . A Condition . . 
The King's Marriage. .Contract. .Final Expulsion. 


A Brief Review. .Curse of God Visited Upon Spain. . 
The Church a False Prophet. .With Expulsion of the 
Jews and Moors Spanish Prosperity Ceases. . Spaniards 
Experience some of the Sufferings which the Jews and 
Moors had Endured. .Spain Makes Amends.. The 
Moors Lost . . the Tews Live . 

The JeW$ and JJodi? in $pain, 




T is with the past that we shall commune in 
these pages. Events and scenes, beautiful and 
* , ' loathsome, joyous and tearful, ennobling and 
/;\ degrading, will follow each other in rapid suc- 
T cession. There will be much that, despite the 
* very best of historic sources, and most reliable 
and impartial authorities, will be accepted as fabu- 
lous or will be rejected as incredible or impossible. 
Achievements will be described, that will startle 
us for their peerless magnificence and lead us to 
suppose that we are not dealing with facts, but 
with the imaginations of some rich phantasy or 
with the fictitious colorings of a mind enthusiastic 
for an ideal society ; and miseries and sufferings 
will be depicted that will strike terror into our 


very soul, and cause our heart to rise in rebellion 
against the mind, when asked to believe them as 
actual occurrences, and not as some distressing 
and revolting- and bloodstained work of fiction, 
written by some hellish fiend for the amusement 
or for the schooling of the vicious indwellers of 
the bottomless pit of Tophet. And yet, it will 
be history, and true history, strange and incred- 
ible, marvelous and anomalous though it may 
appear. Six and eight and ten centuries have 
since passed by, and the most wonderful of all cen- 
turies they have been, centuries that chronicle the 
birth and prodigious growth of the sciences and 
inventions, the creation and successful continu- 
ance of republican and constitutional govern- 
ments, the breaking down of castes and barriers 
between man and man, the suppression of politi- 
cal and religious terrorism and these blessed re- 
sults have so tickled our conceit, have so raised 
our moral standard that it is almost impossible 
for us to properly conceive either in all its 
grandeur or in all its baseness that era of the 
past, which we are about to traverse. 

But know we must, and therefore, what the 
mind refuses to believe, and what the heart re- 
fuses to credit, let the eye see. Let us think 
ourselves back six and eight and ten centuries. 
Let us enter upon a far and distant journey. 
Away \ve speed. Far, far across the wild Atlan- 
tic. We have reached the sunny land of Spain. 
Here let us pause for a hasty inspection. It will 
not take us long, for that country, that is among 
the poorest of all European countries to-day. 


whose reeking" filth has recently made it a scene 
of revelry to the ravashing plague, whose stu- 
pendous ignorance, and appalling superstitions, 
have made it a by-word among the civilized peo- 
ple of the earth, that country, so backward now, 
will certainly have no attractiveness for us, ten 
centuries earlier in its history. 

Lo! A miracle! The magic wand of some frol- 
icksome fay must have suddenly transformed the 
land of expected filth and wretchedness into a 
beauteous fairyland. Amidst rapturous admira- 
tion of the indescribable beauties, which meet our 
gaze everywhere, we glide along upon the placid 
surface of the Guadalquivir, in which a wondrously 
clear blue sky glasses itself, and splendrous 
palaces and gorgeous parks are reflected. We. 
have entered beautiful Andalusia. We glide 
along the southern declivity of the Sierra Mor- 
ena. Suddenly there breaks upon our view a 
scene of beauty that mocks every attempt at de- 
scription. We ask our black eyed, bronze com- 
plexioned and proud featured oarsman for the 
name of that magnificent city that lies stretched 
for miles along the right bank. He understands 
us not. We address him in French, in German, 
in Greek, in Latin. No answer. We are at 
our wits' end. We must know, and so we seek 
recourse, as a lost resort, to our mother tongue, 
the language of the Hebrews, and his face bright- 
ens, and his tongue is loosened, and in accents 
as melodious and pure as it must have been spok- 
en by David himself, when he sang to his harp, 
the words of his own heaven-inspired psalms he 


makes reply : "What ye behold, ye strangers, 
is the city of Cordova, the government seat of 
the valiant and chivalrous, and scholarly and 
liberal, and art-loving Caliph Abderrahman III." 
We are burning with a desire to see that 
city, whose simple outlines display such bewild- 
ering elegance. With our courteous oarsman as 
guide, we advance along the street that leads 
from the river bank. We gaze and gaze in awe- 
stricken silence. . Amazement is expressed on 
every countenance. Our eyes are dazzled with the 
enchanting magnificence that abounds. We have 
reached the palace of the Caliph. Are we dream- 
ing? Are we under the power of some magic spell ? 
Is this a whim of some sportive, mischief-loving 
fay? Have we not thought ourselves some ten 
centuries back? Are we in the miclst of the 
Dark Ages; in European lands, and among the 
people of the tenth century, concerning whose 
stupendous ignorance and loathsome filth his- 
torians have had so much to say? Has history 
deceived us in its teaching that the people of 
Europe, six and eight centuries back had scarce- 
ly emerged from the savage state, that they in- 
habited floorless, chimneyless, windowless huts, 
those of princes and monarchs differing only in 
their having rushes on the floor and straw mats 
against the- walls, that they fed on roots and 
vetches and bark of trees, clothed in garments of 
untanned skin which remained on the body till 
they dropped in pieces, that there existed scarce!) 
a city, everywhere pathless forest and howling 
wastes ? 


It is not a dream. Neither has history de- 
ceived us. We are in European lands, but among 
Oriental people. We are in the midst of the 
prime of the dark ages, but we are in the South- 
ern part of Spain, in Andalusia, in the city of 
Cordova, a city of 200,000 houses, and 1,000,000 
inhabitants, of hundreds of parks and public gar- 
dens, of menageries of foreign animals, of aviar- 
ies of rare birds, of factories in which skilled 
workmen display their art in textures of silk, 
cotton, linen, and all the miracles of the loom, 
in jewelry and in filigree works, in works of art, 
and in scientific instruments and apparatus. We 
are in the city that, even then, could boast of a 
college of music, of libraries, of public schools, of 
universites in which instructions were given in 
the sciences and philosophies and languages, and 
literatures and arts. We are in the city of art 
and culture and learning, the city made famous 
and beautiful by the literary and cultured Moors 
and Jews, whose prosperity continued as long as 
the followers of Mohammed and the followers of 
Moses were permitted to dwell in peace side by 
side, but whose glory vanished as soon as Chris- 
tianity banished the Jews and Moors from Spain. 
But we must not indulge in any reflections now. 
Our raven locked guide, whose beautiful form, 
and winning countenance, and melodious voice 

involuntarily remind us of the beautiful lover of 
the love-inflamed Shulamite in "Solomon's 
Song," beckons, and we must follow. On we 
march, and with every step new and matchless 
beauties unroll themselves before us. We know 


not what we shall admire first, and most, wheth- 
er the polished marble balconies that overhang 1 
luscious orange gardens, or the courts with the 
cascades of water beneath the shades of the cy- 
press trees, or the artificial lakes, supplied with 
water by hydraulic works, replete with fish; 
whether the shady retreats with inlaid floors and 
walls of exquisite mosaic, vaulted with stained 
glass and speckled with gold, over which streams 
of water are continually gushing, or the fountains 
of quicksilver, that shoot up in glittering glo- 
bules and fall with a tranquil sound like fairy 
bells; whether the apartments into which cool 
air is drawn from the flower gardens, in summer 
by means of ventilating towers and in winter 
through earthen pipes or caleducts imbedded in 
the walls the hypocaust, in the vaults below, or 
the walls adorned with arabesque and paintings 
of agricultural scenes and views .of paradise, or 
the ceilings corniced with fretted gold, other 
great chandeliers with their hundreds and hun- 
dreds of lamps; whether the columns of Greek, 
Italian, Spanish and African marble, covered with 
verd-antique and incrusted with lapis lazuli, or 
the furniture of sandal and citron wood, in- 
laid with mother of pearl, ivory, silver, or re- 
lieved with gold and precious malachite', pr 
the costume of the ladies woven in silk and 
gold, and decorated with gems of chrysolites, 
hyacinths, emeralds and sapphires ; whether 
the vases of rock crystal, Chinese porcelains, 
the embroidered Persian carpets with which the 
floors are covered, the rich tapestry that hang 


along the walls, or the beautiful gardens, profuse 
with rare and exotic flowers, winding walks, 
bowers of roses, -seats cut out of the rock, crypt- 
like grottoes hewn into the stone; whether the 
baths of marble, with hot and cold water, carried 
thither by pipes of metal, or the niches, with their 
dripping alcarazzas, or the whispering galleries 
for the amusement of the women, or the laby- 
rinths and marble play-courts for the children. 

On and on we pass, and new beauties still. 
\\Y pass mosques and synagogues whose archi- 
tectural finish is still the admiration and model 
of the world, and our gentle guide informs us 
that a public school is attached to each, in which 
the children of the poor are taught to read and 
write. We pass academies and universities, and 
our guide assures us that many a Hebrew pre- 
sides over the Moorish institutions of learning. 


He reads the expression of surprise on our coun- 
tenance, for we think of the striking con- 
trast between his Mohammedan liberality 
and the intolerance of the other European 
countries, from which they are scarcely weaned 
as yet, and he modestly imforms us that the Mo- 
hammedan maxim is, that "the real learning of a 
man is of more importance than any particular 
religious opinions he may entertain." And as 
the famous scholars pass in and out, our guide- 
mentions them by name, and speaks of their 
brilliant accomplishments, of professors of Arabic 
classical literature, of professors of mathematics 
and astronomy, compilers of dictionaries similar to 
those now in use, but of larger copiousness, .one 


of these covering sixty volumes, he points out 
the lexicographers of Greek and Latin and He- 
brew and Arabic, and the encyclopedists of the 
"Historical Dictionary of Sciences," the poets of 
the satires, odes and elegies, and the inventors 
of the rhyme, the writers of history, of chronology, 
of numismatics, mathematics, astronomy, of pul- 
pit oratory, of agriculture, of topography, of stat- 
istics, ot physics, philosophy, medicines, dentistry, 
surgery, zoology, botany> pharmacy, and of the 
numerous other branches of learning. 

Night has set in. Men are gathering around 
their evening fires to listen to the wandering lit- 
erati, who exercise their wonderful powers of 
tale telling, and edify the eager listeners by such 
narratives as those that have descended to us in 
the "Arabian Nights' Entertainments." The 
dulcet strains of the dreamy and love-awaking 
mandolin, accompanying the rapturous love song 
of some chivalrous knight to his lady fair, break 
on our ears. Soon all is silent. We fain would 
stay, but our guide is weary from his day's task. 
Perchance the sweet strains of the serenade have 
awakened within his bosom tender longings for 
his fairShulamite, "whose eyes are as the dove's, 
and whose lips are like a thread of scarlet, and 
whose speech is comely," (Song of Solomon, 
chap, iv.) to whom he would eagerly speed. 
And so we retrace our steps. For miles we 
walk in a straight line, by the light of public 
lamps; seven hundred years after this time 
there was not so much as one public lamp in 


For miles we walk along solidly paved streets. 
In Paris centuries subsequently, whoever stepped 
over his threshold on a rainy day stepped up to 
his ankles in mud. We have reached the bank 
of the Guadalquivir, and we have parted with our 

We have seen in one day more than we 
ever dared to dream of; enough to tempt us to 
visit it again and again, and not only Cordova, 
but also Grenada, Toledo, Barcelona, Saragossa, 
Seville, and other cities, to acquire a better ac- 
quaintanceship with their scholars and institutions, 
and with the wondrous advance of their civiliza- 
tion. Before we return, however, we shall visit 
France, Germany, England and Northern Spain, 
during the same era of the world's history, about 
ten centuries back, and the scenes that we shall 
meet there will enable us to appreciate all the 
better the benefits which the Moors and the Jews 
lavished upon Europe, and we shall become the 
more painfully conscious of the unatonable crime 
Spain has committed in expelling the Moors from 
Europe, and degrading the Jews for centuries to 
the dregs of mankind. 






On, on, we glide upon the smooth, broad bosom 
of the majestic Guadalquivir, along graceful 
groves and parks and palaces, through woods 
and meads, hills and dales, shades and sun. A 
last glance, and beauteous Cordova hides her 
proud head behind the sun-kissed horizon. 

Fair Cordova, fair Andalusia, fair Southern lands 
of Spain, fare ye well, take our brief adieu, till 
we visit you anew. 

On, on, we sail, towards the Atlantic now we 

We have reached the shores of the inter- 
minable ocean. Its wild waves dash fiercely 


against the rock-ribbed shores, as if impatient 
for our return. Our goodly ship, staunch and 
strong, raises and lowers its festooned bow upon 
the heaving billows of the waters vast, and its 
pendant is playing in the wind, and its sails from 
the foreroyal to the mizzenroyal, and up to the 
very top of the mainroyal are furled to the full, 
in its hearty welcome to our return. We embark, 

"On, on the vessel flies, the land is gone. 
Four days are sped, but with the fifth, anon, 
New shores descried, make every bosom gay," 

For we are to visit beautiful France, and learned 
Germany, and busy England, and Italy, of classic 

Once more we are on the continent. Once 
more our observations are to be put to the task. 
Once more we think ourselves some six and 
eight and ten centuries back in the world's his- 
tory. Once more the eye is to be made to see 
what the mind has refused to credit. 

Dreary and chilling and appalling are the 
scenes that now break upon our view. Long- 
ingly we think of thee, fair Cordova, thou pride 
of beauteous Andalusia. We think of thy pave- 
ments of marble, of thy fountains of jasper, of 
thy wondrous artistic skill, of thy exquisite gar- 
dens, of thy famous poets and musicians, artists 
and writers, philosophers and scientists, of thy 
chivalrous knights and enchanting ladies. Long- 
ingly we think of thy wondrous beauty, that would, 
indeed, in our present surroundings, have sound- 
ed fabulous had not our own eyes seen it. Had 


we been suddenly transplanted from the midst of 
blossoming and ripening summer, joyous because 
of its balmy breath and the melodious song of its 
birds, and the fragrant breath of its flowers, and 
the gladdening sight of its ripening fruit into the 
midst ot the barren winter, where nature is frozen 
dead, and the storm rides on the gale, and the 
earth is bare and naked, and the air is cold and 
dreary, and the sun shines gloomily through the 
bleak and murky skies, that sudden change could 
not have been more keenly nor more painfully 
felt than that which marked the contrast between 
the southern lands of Spain and the countries of 
France and Germany and England and Italy, 
during the same age of the world's history. 
Scarcely a city anywhere, save those few that 
had been erected along the Rhine and the Dan- 
ube by the Romans. Nothing that could, even 
with the broadest stretch of leniency, be desig- 
nated as agricultural. Everywhere pathless for- 
ests, howling wastes, ill-boding wildernesses, 
death-exhaling swamps, pestiferous fens. Prus- 
sia, and many more of to-day's proudest stars 
in the galaxy of European provinces, we find still 
uncivilized, still roaming about in the very cos- 
tumes of native barbarians, in the spirits and vam- 
pires and nixes and gnomes and kobolds 
inhabited pathless forests. Nowhere a street or 
highway, save those the Romans had built. 
Everywhere we must make our way, amidst in- 
describable difficulties, through almost impassable 
mud and clay. The people crowded together in 
miserable hamlets, inhabit wretched homesteads, 


crudely and bunglingly put together of undressed 
timber, or of twigs wattled together and covered 
with clays or thatched with straw or reeds, con- 
sisting seldom of more than one room, which 
shelters alike man, woman, child, man servant, 
maid servant, fowl and beast, a commingling of 
sex and species not altogether conducive to mod- 
esty or morality. The floor, for the main part is 
composed of the hard bare ground, or at best is 
covered with dry leaves or with filthy rushes. 
Nowhere a window, nowhere a chimney, the 
smoke of the ill-fed, cheerless fire escaping through 
a hole in the roof. Straw pellets constitute the 
bed, and a round log serves the place of bolster 
and pillow, one platter oftreen stands in the cen- 
ter of the table if "table" it might be called 
from which man, woman and child, master and 
servant, maid and mistress, eat with spoons of 
wood. Fingers serve the place of knives and 
forks, and a wooden trencher makes the round 
to quench the thirst. 

Everywhere we meet with men with squalid 
beards, and women with hair unkempt and mat- 
ted with filth, and both, clothed in garments of 
untanned skin, or, at best, of leather or hair cloth, 
that are not changed till they drop in pieces of 
themselves, a loathsome mass of vermin, stench 
and rags. No attempt at drainage; the putrefy- 
ing slops and garbage and rubbish are unceremo- 
niously thrown out of the door. 

The most revolting uncleanness abounds, and 
we cannot help thinking of the scrupulous clean- 
liness that distinguished Cordova, for cleanness is 


one of the most rigorous injunctions and require- 
ments with both the religion of Mohammed and 
the religion of Moses. Here, on the contrary, 
personal uncleanliness, the renunciation of every 
personal comfort, the branding of every effort for 
better surroundings, we are told, upon inquiry, 
has the highest sanction of the church. The sor- 
did example set by the Ascetic monks has estab- 
lished the belief that cleanliness of the body leads 
to the pollution of the soul, that in the past those 
saints were most admired who had become one 
hideous mass of clotted filth. With a thrill of 
admiration a priest informs us that St. Jerome had 
seen a monk who for thirty years had lived in a 
hole, and who never washed his clothes, nor 
changed his tunic till it fell to pieces; that St. 
Ammon had never seen himself naked; that the 
famous virgin, named Silvia, had resolutely refused 
for sixty years, on religious principles, to wash 
any part of her body, except her fingers; that 
St. Euphraxia had joined a convent of 130 nuns, 
who shuddered at the mention of a bath; that an 
anchorite had once imagined that he was mocked 
by an illusion of the devil, as he saw gliding be- 
fore him through the desert a naked creature 
black with filth and years of exposure; it was the 
once beautiful St. Mary of Egypt, who had thus 
during forty-seven years been expiating her sins 
of Asceticism." 

We have seen enough to lead us to the con- 
clusion, that when we enter into an examination 
of the mental and moral and religious state of 
the people, whose personal and domestic life 


hold so low a rank in the history of civilization, 
we must not place our expectations too high. 
But low as we picture it to ourselves, the reality 
we find is infinitly lower than even our most len- 
ient imagination had pictured it. Only a week 
ago \ve found Cordova proud, and distinguished, 
and peerless in the realm of culture, and art, and 
philosophy, and science, and now, during the 
same period of the world's history, we find a deep 
black cloud of appalling ignorance overhanging 
France, and Italy, and Germany and England, 
here and there only broken by a few, a very few, 
glimmering lights. Intellect, fettered hand and 
foot, lies bleeding at the feet of benighted bar- 
barism, writhing in pain beneath the lashes of de- 
grading superstitions, and groveling credulity. 
We search for the cause of this stupendous ignor- 
ance, and we soon find that to the clergy, more 
than to all other causes combined, belongs the 
very ignoble distinction of having ushered into 
Europe this stolid ignorance, and for being re- 
sponsible for the unatonable crime of having re- 
tarded the advance of civilzation by many cen- 

To the all powerful and all controlling in- 
fluence of the Church is to be ascribed 
the universal paralysis of the mind during the 
very same period, when art and science and in- 
dependent research flourished in Southern Spain 
under Moorish and Jewish influence. Whomso- 
ever we approach, be they dignitaries of the 
Church or Church menials, distinguished lumin- 
aries or obscure parish priests, a conversation 


with them soon proves to us the sad truth, that 
their stock of knowledge exhausts itself with an 
enumeration of some monstrous legends or 
with the practice and teaching of some degrading 
and repulsive superstitions. 

Secular knowledge is spurned. Physical 
science is held in avowed contempt and perse- 
cuted upon the ground of its inconsistency with 
revealed truth. Philosophical research is prohib- 
ited, under the severest punishment, as perni- 
cious to piety. Upon inquiry as to the cause of 
this persecution oflearing on the part of the church, 
which, as we modestly dare to suggest, has noth- 
ing to lose, but everything to gain from rational 
research and diligent pursuit of knowledge, a 
bishop emphatically informs us that they did this 
with the sanction and authority of the fourth 
council of Carthage, which had prohibited the 
reading of secular books by bishops, and with the 
authority of Jerome who had condemned the 
study of secular subjects, except for pious ends, 
and as there was no lack of piety (so they artless- 
ly thought) they saw little use in preserving the 
learning and literature of the accursed Jews and 
heathens, and fearing lest they fall into the hands 
of others, not so pious as they, and not so pro- 
tected against their pernicious influence by the 
knowledge of legends, or by the skillful use of 
magic spells, or exorcising charms, as they were. 
Or perhaps secretly fearing, lest an intimate 
knowledge of the learning of the ancients might 
open the eyes of the people to the ignorance and 
extortions and crimes and corruptions of the 


Church, they condemn that whole literature to 
the flames. Hundreds and thousands of valuable 
manuscripts are thus pitilessly destroyed. \Ve 
fain would stay their cruel hand, but we fear for 
our lives. We see them erase the writing from 
hundreds and thousands of parchment copies of 
ancient priceless lore, and substitute in its stead 
legends of saints, and ecclesiastical rubbish, oc- 
casioning thus the loss of many an ancient author 
that is now so painfully missed. 

\Ve turn away from this revolting stupidity, but 
nowhere a pleasing sign to allay our anguish, or 
appease our grief-stricken heart. 

"Oh, thou monstrous ignorance, how deformed dost thou look.'' 

Nowhere freedom of humane thought. Every- 
one compelled to think as ecclesiastical authority 
orders him to think. In Germany, France and 
Northern Spain we find scarcely one priest out of 
a thousand who can write his name. In Rome 
itself, once the city of art and culture and learn- 
ing, as late as 992. a reliable authority informs us. 
there is not a priest to be found who knows the 
first elements of letters. In England, King Alfred 
informs us that he cannot recollect a single priest 
south of the Thames (then the most civilized part 
of England) who at the time of his accession un- 
derstood or could translate the ordinary Latin 
prayer, and that the homilies which they preached 
were compiled for their use by some bishop from 
former works of the same kind, or from the early 
Patristic writings. Throughout Christendom we 


find no restraint on the ordination of persons abso- 
lutely illiterate, no rules to exclude the ignorant 
from ecclesiastical preferment, no inclination and 
no power to make it obligatory upon even the 
mitred dignitaries, to be able to read a line from 
those Scriptures which they are to teach and 
preach as the rule of right and the guide to moral 
conduct. Darkness, intense darkness, stupend- 
ous ignorance everywhere. We shudder as we 
think of the cruelties which this ignorance will be- 
queath as its curse upon mankind. We shudder 
as we think of how this ignorance needs must 
check the advance of civilzation. We know 
that knowledge will not be fettered forever, but 
before it shall be able to assert its right to sway 
over the mind of men, countless giant minds will 
have to be crushed and indescribable suf- 
fering will h'ave to be endured. We know 
that "ignorance seldom vaults into knowledge, 
but passes into it through an intermediate state 
of obscurity, even as night into day through twi- 
light." We tremble for those independent spirits 
that shall live during that transitory period. That 
twilight will be reddened by the reflection of 
streams of human blood. 

We fain would speed away from these European 
lands, for we instinctively feel that we are in lands 
under the curse of God, and smitten with darkness, 
because their people had laid cruel hands upon 
the lands and the people of learning and culture 
and art. 

But we must stay. We must note, distressing 
though the duty be, the terrible influence which 


this ignorance exercised upon the morals of the 
Church itself, and upon the mental and moral and 
political and social and industrial state of the 











We promised to make a careful examination in- 
to the influence which the ignorance of the clergy 
exercised upon the aspect of religion, upon 
the morals of the Church, and upon the 
social, industrial, political, moral and mental 
state of the people at large. We fear we 
made a rash promise. So heartrending are the 
sights we see, if we are to give a faithful report, 
those unacquainted with the state of European 
civilization during the period which we are tra- 
versing, we fear, may accuse us of exaggeration, 
or worse still, may think that we, who belong to 
the race that suffered most during that period 
from the corruption of the Church, are animated 


by a spirit of revenge, and, therefore, find intense 
delight in holding so revolting a picture before 
our readers. But, happily, our readers are not 
composed of such. We are addressing intelligent 
people, men and women who know that our peo- 
ple have suffered too terribly and too unjustly 
from false accusations during many, many cen- 
turies, to render ourselves guilty of the same 
crime; men and women who know, that it is not 
from choice, but from historic necessity, that we 
contrast the social, and moral and intellectual 
state of Christian Europe during the Dark Ages, 
with the social and moral and intellectual state of 
Moorish and Jewish Europe of the same period, 
to appreciate the better the wonderful civilization 
of " The Jeivs and Moors in Spain" 

Our search discloses to us the sad and terrible 
truth that ignorance, especially active ignorance, is 
the mother of superstition, and both the parents of 
fanaticism, and the offspring of this trio is deliberate 
imposture, extortion, corruption, crime, and these, 
in their turn, beget the world's misfortunes. This 
sad truth stares us in the face whatever church, 
cathedral, monastery or community we enter. 
Everywhere miracles and relics and idolatry. 
Everywhere the teaching and preaching of hell 
and Satan and witchcraft, and of the necessity of 
blind credulity and unquestioning belief. Every 
cathedral and monastery has its tutelar saint, and 
every saint his legend, and wondrous accounts are 
spread concerning the saint's power, for good or 
evil, often fabricated to enrich the church or mon- 
astery under his protection. 


In Dublin we see the crucifix that sheds tears 
of blood. In Loretto we see the house once in- 
habited by the Virgin, and we were told, that 
some angels, chancing- to be at Nazareth when 
the Saracen conquerors approached, fearing that 
the sacred relic might fall into their possession, 
took the house bodily in their hands, and, carry- 
ing it through the air, deposited it at its present 
place. In Bavaria they show us the brazen 
android which Albertus Magnus had so cunningly 
contrived as to serve him for a domestic, and 
whose garrulity had so much annoyed the stud- 
ious Thomas Aquinas. In Alsace the abbot 
Martin shows us the following inestimable relics, 
which he had obtained for his monastery: a 
spot of the blood of Jesus, a piece of the true 
cross, the arm of the apostle James, part of the 
skeleton of John the Baptist, a bottle of milk of 
the blessed Virgin, and, with an ill-disguised envy, 
he told us that a finger of the Holy Ghost is pre- 
served in a monastery at Jerusalem. 

Everywhere we are told that the arch fiend and 
his innumerable legions of demons are forever 
hovering about us, seeking our present unhappi- 
ness and the future ruin of mankind ; that we are at 
no time, and at no place, safe from them; that we 
cannot be sufficiently on our guard against them, 
for sometimes they assume the shape of a grotes- 
que and hideous animal; sometimes they ap- 
pear in the shape of our nearest and dearest rela- 
tives and friends: sometimes as a beautiful wo- 
man, alluring by more than human charms, the 
unwary to their destruction, and laying plots, 


which \vere but too often successful against the 
virtue of the saints; sometimes the Evil One as- 
sumes the shape of a priest, and, in order to 
bring discredit upon that priest's character, ma- 
liciously visits, in this saintly disguise, some 
very questionable places and allows himself to 
be caught in most disgraceful situations and en- 
vironments. Can we imagine an invention more 
ingenius to hide the foul practices of the corrupt 
among the clergy? 

Everywhere the clergy finds it a very profitable 
traffic to teach how the people might protect 
themselves against the Evil One. The sign of 
the cross, a few drops of Holy water, the name 
of the Virgin, the Gospel of St. John around the 
neck, a rosary, a relic of Christ or of a saint, suf- 
fice to baffle the utmost efforts of diabolic malice, 
and to put the Spirits of Evil to an immediate 
and ignominious flight. 

There is not a Church, not a monastery that 
we enter, but that our blood is chilled at its 
fountain, as we gaze upon the ghastly paintings, 
representing the horrible tortures of hell, placed 
conspicuously for the contemplation of the faith- 
ful, or for the fear of the wicked, or for the gain 
of the clergy for the' heavier the purse the 
church receives, the surer the release. It is im- 
possible to conceive more ghastly conceptions of 
the future world than these pictures evinced, or 
more hideous calumnies against that Being, who 
was supposed to inflict upon His creatures such 
unspeakable misery. On one picture the devil 
is represented bound by red-hot chains, on a 


burning gridiron in the center of hell. His hands 
are free, and with these he seizes the lost souls, 
crushes them like grapes against his teeth, and 
then draws them by his breath down the fiery 
cavern of his throat. Demons with hooks of red- 
hot iron, plunge souls alternately into fire and ice. 
Some of the lost are hung by their tongues, 
others are sawn asunder, others are gnawed by 
serpents, others are beaten together on an anvil, 
and welded into a single mass, others are boiled 
and strained through a cloth, others are twined 
in the embraces of demons whose limbs are of 
flames. But not only the guilty are represented 
suffering thus, but also the innocent, who expiate 
amidst heartrending tortures the guilt of their 
fathers.* A little boy is represented in his suf- 
fering. His eyes are burning like two 
burning coals. Two long flashes come out 
of his ears. Blazing fire rolls out of his 
mouth. An infant is represented roasting in a 
hot .oven. It turns and twists, it beats its head 
against the roof of the oven in agony of its suffer- 

Unable to gaze upon the scene of innocent suf- 
fering any longer, we turn from it, trembling 
with rage. We ask a priest, who chances to be 
near, what fiend could calumniate thus the good 
God? And smoothly he replies: 

"God was very good to this child. Very like- 
ly God saw it would get worse and worse and 
would never repent, and so it would have to be 
punished much more in hell. So God, in his 

*Consult Wall's History of Infant Baptism. 


mercy, called it out of the world in its early child- 
hood." f 

We no longer wonder at the stupidity of the 
people, at the enormous wealth, and still greater 
power of the clergy, when we remember that 
the people were inoculated with the belief that 
the clergy alone could save them from such etern- 
al tortures, and that money was the safest and 
most potent redeemer, and the never failing media- 
tor for effacing the most monstrous crimes, and 
for securing ultimate happiness. 

We turn from these frightful sights only to en- 
counter more terrible scenes of misery. So far we 
had gazed upon purely, imaginary suffering, now 
we encounter the real, the intensely real. Every- 
where we see the sky lurid from the reflection of 
the autos da fe, on which thousands of innocent- 
ly accused victims, suffer the most agonizing and 
protracted torments, without exciting the faintest 
compassion. Everywhere we hear the prison 
walls re-echo the piercing shrieks of women, 
suffering the tortures preceding their conviction 
as witches. And once, it was in Scotland, we 
were the unfortunate spectators of a sight which 
we never shall forget. While the act of burning 
witches \vas being preformed amidst religious 
ceremonies, with a piercing yell some of the wo- 
men, half burnt, broke from the slow fire that 
consumed them, struggled for a few moments 
with despairing energy among the spectators, 

f For full account of the teaching of the Church during the Dark 
Ages concerning the suffering in hell, see Lecky's "History of European 
Morals," chap iv. 


until, with wild protestations of innocence, they 
sank writhing in agony, breathing their last. 

And why are these women burnt by the 
thousands, everywhere, in Germany, France, 
Spain, Italy, Flanders, Sweden, England, Scot- 
land and Ireland? Because they had entered in- 
to a deliberate compact with Satan. They had 
been seen riding at midnight through the air on 
a broomstick or on a goat. They had worked 
miracles thus infringing upon the monopoly of 
the saints or had afflicted the country with 
comets, hailstorms, plagues, or their neighbors 
with disease or barrenness. And who invents 
so malicious a falsehood? Often the victims 
themselves, for, suspected or accused of witchcraft 
they are at once subjected to tortures, to force 
a confession of their guilt, and these are so ter- 
rible, that death is a release, and so they con- 
fess, whatever the witch-courts want them to- 
confess. Many a husband cuts thus the marriage 
tie which his church had pronounced indissoluble. 
Many a dexterous criminal directs a charge of 
witchcraft against his accuser, and thus escapes 
with impunity. 

Everywhere we find the whole body of the 
clergy, from pope to priest, busy in the chase for 
gain; what escapes the bishop is snapped up by 
the archdeacon, what escapes the archdeacon is 
nosed and hunted down by the dean, while a host 
of minor officials prowl hungrily around these 
great marauders. To give money to the priest is 
everywhere regarded as the first article of the 
moral code. In seasons of sickness, of danger, of 


sorrow, or of remorse, whenever the fear or the 
conscience of the worshiper is axvakened he is. 
taught to purchase the favor of the saint. St. 
Lligus gives us this definition of a good Christian : 
"He w'ho comes frequently to church, whopresents 
an oblation that it may be offered to God on the al- 
tar, who does not taste the fruits of his land till 
he has consecrated a part of them to God, who 
offers presents and tithes to churches, that on 
the judgment day he may be able to say: "Give 
unto us Lord for w ? e have given unto Thee;" who 
redeems his soul from punishment, and finally 
who can repeat the creeds or the Lord's prayer." 
Bad as we find their greed, we find their moral 
corruption indescribably worse. Void of every 
sting of conscience, drunken, lost in sensuality" 
and open immorality. In Italy, a bishop informs 
us, that w r ere he to enforce the canons against un- 


chaste people administering ecclesiastical rites, 
no one would be left in the Church, except the 
boys. Everywhere, clergymen, sworn to celi- 
bacy, take out their "culagium" their license to 
keep concubines, and more than one council, and 
more than one ecclesiastical writer we find speak- 
ing of priestly corruption far greater than simple 
concubinage, prominently among whom they 
mention, Pope, John XXIII. abbot elect of St. 
Augustine, at Canterbury, the abbot of St. Pelayo, 
in Spain, Henry III Bishop of Liege, and they 
enumerate the countless nunneries, that are de- 
graded into brothels, and are flagrant for their 
frequent infanticides. 

There is scarcely a need for our reporting 


concerning the influence, which this moral de- 
pravity of the Church has upon the masses. \Ve 
find that the ignorance and the corruption and 
the bigotry made the people fully as ignorant and 
corrupt and vicious. The pernicious doctrine al- 
ready adopted in the fourth century, that it is an 
act of virtue to deceive and lie. when by that 
means the interests of the church might be pro- 
moted," J leads the people to the conclusion 
that nothing can be possibly wrong, which leads 
to the promotion of the Church's interests 
and finances. And so crimes are perpet- 
rated, wrongs committed, deceptions practiced, 
vice indulged without a pang of conscience, or a 
throb of the gentler emotions. Ignorance dead- 
ens every finer feeling, and religion, instead, of 
elevating man's moral nature, crushes it by the 
opportunities it offers for canceling crime with 
money, and for saving the soul from eternal torture 
and damnation by increasing the clergy's oppor- 
tunities for debauchery. 

We next look for the intellectual accomplish- 
ments, but we look in vain. The masses arc in- 
tensely ignorant. The clergy can not instruct 
them, neither would they, if they could. Knowl- 
edge among the masses would have seriously 
interfered with their all-controlling power, as it 
really did in later centuries. This ignorance is 
fully shared by the secular chiefs of the land. 
Kings repudiate book-learning as unworthy of 
the crown, and warlike nobles despise it as dis- 
graceful to the sword. It is a rare thing, and 

} "Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History." 


not considered an accomplishment, to find a war- 
rior who can read or write. To suppose that he 
can write is to insult him by mistaking him for 
an ecclesiastic. No less a personage than Phil- 
ippe le Bel, the powerful monarch of United 
France who conducts foreign wars and exter- 
minates the Templars, signs his name with the 
sign of the cross or a rude arrow head, as late as 
the thirteenth century. Let us not forget, that 
nearly three hundred years earlier in the world's 
history, we had found public schools, academies, 
universities, libraries, poets, artists, scientists and 
philosophers flourishing among the Moors and 
Jews of Cordova had seen Al Hakem the 
Caliph, writing a digest on the fly-leaves of the 
contents of each of his books in his great li- 

We next look for the Industries, and there is 
little to be found that can be honored with that 
name. A belief prevails among the people that 
the millenium, the end of the world, will set in, 
amidst terrible sufferings at the year 1000. This 
belief stifles industry, and property and wealth 
are turned over to the Church for the sake of the 
soul's release. Next come the Crusades and 
these sap Europe of the flower of its people, 
who leave by the thousands and hundreds of 
thousands (and of which numbers but few re- 
turn), to keep the Moslems out of Jerusalem, w r hile 
the aged and the infirm, the women and children, 
eke out a miserable existence at home, feeding 
on beans, vetches, roots, bark of trees often 
horseflesh and mare's milk furnish a delicious 


repast. During the intervals between the vari- 
ous Crusades those few who return, are so accus- 
tomed to their roving" and plundering life that it 
is impossible for them to settle down to mechani- 
cal or industrial pursuits. 

The Jews devote themselves almost exclusively 
to the industries, and for this they suffer much. 
Commerce is not safe. The feudal lords de- 
scend from their fortresses to pillage the mer- 
chant's goods. The highways are besieged by 
licensed robbers, who confiscate the merchandise, 
murder the owners, or sell them as slaves, or ex- 
act enormous ransoms. Might makes right, and 
the most- powerful are the most distinguished for 
their unscrupulous robberies. Their castles, 
erected on almost inaccessible heights among the 
pathless woods, become the secure receptacles of 
predatory bands, who spread terror over the 
country and make traffic and enterprise insecure 
and next to impossible. And as it is on land so 
it is at sea, where a vessel is never secure 
from an attack of the pirates, and where neither 
restitution nor punishment of the crimnals is ob- 
tained from governments, which sometimes fear 
the plunderer and sometimes connive at the of- 

The political state of Europe we find still 
worse. The word liberty has not yet found its 
way into the dictonaries of the people. By far 
the greater part of society is everywhere bereav- 
ed of its personal liberty. 

Everyone that is not Noble is a slave. Warfare 
is the rule of the day. The Church tramples upon 


kings and nobles ; these, in their turn, such is 
the prestige of the feudal system, tyrannize over 
the next lower order, the next lower order apes 
the example oi its superior upon its inferior, and 
so on from lower to lower caste, till the lowest, 
the peasants, who have sunk into a qualified 
slavery called serfdom. The fight for supremacy 
between Church and State, the dreadful oppres- 
sion of the several orders of feudalism, convulses 
society with their perennial feuds, the pride ot 
the countries are either cruelly butchered or em- 
ployed more frequently in laying" waste the fields 
of their rivals, or putting the destructive fire- 
brand, or the ruthless sword upon the prosperity 
of their foe, than improving their own. 

Let this report, meager as it is, suffice. The 
ignorance and misery and suffering and cruelties 
that abound everywhere are too revolting to 
tempt a longer stay. Like Ajax, we pray for 
light. Away from the jaws of darkness. 

Ye sailors, ho! furl your sails, raise the anchor, 
clear the harbor. And thou goodly vessel, 
staunch and strong, hie thee straight across the 
foaming deep. And thou, O Aeolus, blow cheer- 
ily and lustily thy sonthern winds upon us. And 
thou, O Neptune, speed thou our course, haste 
us back again to fair Andalusia, to beauteous 
Cordova, for there is no spot on earth like Cor- 
dova, "the city of the seven gates," "the tent of 
Islam," "the abode of the learned." "the meeting 
place of the eminent" the city of parks and pal- 
aces, aqueducts and public baths, the city of 
chivalrous knights and enchanting ladies. 


Aeolus and Neptune answer our prayer. The 
goodly ship she spins along. "She walks the 
waters like a thing of life." Soon the lands we 
eager seek will be descried, and, once again up- 
on the sunny shore, we shall continue our obser- 
vations, and freely share them with our friend 
upon Columbia's virgin soil. 


. .-- . ^4 ;. 'i 'fc: -^<*<'>3QK%_** 

: ir'^lByrf^'^^.^XVV^ 





Again our light-winged boat glides upon the 
broad and silvery bosom of the majestic Guadal- 
quiver, along parks filled with flowering shrubs, 
along glittering palaces and song-resounding 
woods, along palmy islets, and sweet scented and 
crimson-tinted hills. 

It is an early spring morning, nearly 1,000 
years back in the world's history. Our boat 
makes a sudden turn, and Cordova, all glisten- 
ing in the morning dew, raises her head as if 
from a bath in the crystal stream. Aurora, god- 
dess of the dawn, blushes in the sky, and with 
her rosy fingers she sports playfully with the 
golden tresses of Andalusia's fairest daughter. 
It is morn, 

"When the magic of daylight awakes 
A new wonder each moment, as slowly it breaks; 
Hills, cupolas, fountains, called forth everyone 
Out of darkness, as if but just born of the sun." 


It is with difficulty that our agile oarsman, the 
raven-locked and graceful featured Jewish youth, 
whose services as guide we have again secured, 
makes his way among the countless pleasure boats 
that ply to and fro. We marvel at this, for dis- 
tinctly we remember how the broad stream was 
furrowed during our first visit by boats of traffic 
only. "It is Friday, the Mohammedan Sabbath," 
our pruide informs us, and we no longer wonder. 

o o 

The boats, some gilded, some festooned, some 
decked with the richest tapestry, are peopled 
with gay and happy pleasure seekers. The 
whole youth of Cordova seems to disport itself 
upon the water. The air re-echoes their merry 
laughters and their music: 

"From psaltery, pipe and lutes of heavenly thrill, 
Or there own youthful voices, hsavenlier still." 

The winged chorister of the woods and parks 
take up the refrain, and warble their sweetest, 
as if in contest with voices human for supremacy 
in song. But what is most strange and most 
charming is the continual challenge between the 
oarsmen for repartee songs, which are either ex- 
temporized at: the moment, or quotations from 
their numerous poets. A boat crosses our path, 
stays our course, and its oarsman to test our 
guide's readiness to sing Cordova's praise, thus 
begins in the sweet tones of the poetic Arabic 

"Do not talk of the court of Bagdad and its glittering magnificence. 
Do not praise Persia and China, and their manifold advantages. 
For there is no spot on earth like Cordova, 
Nor-in the whole world beauties likes its beauties." 



To which our guide instantly replies, with a 
sweet and pure tenor voice: 

"O, my beloved Cordova! 

Where shall I behold thine equal. 

Thou art like an enchanted spot, 

Thy fields are luxuriant gardens, 

Thy earth of various colors 

Resembles a flock of rose colored amber." 

The challenging oarsman had meet his peer. 
He is pleased with the reply and clears the path. 
Now our oarsman impedes the path of a boat, 
and taking for his theme, "The Ladies," chal- 
lenges its oarsman thus: 

'Bright is the gold and fair the pearl, 
Hut brighter, fairer, thou, sweet girl. 
Jacinths and emeralds of the mine, 
Radiant as sun and moon may shine, 
But what are all their charms to thine?" 

To which the challenged replies: 

"The Maker's stores have beauties rare, 

But none that can with thee compare, 

O pearl, that (loci's own hand hath made; 

Earth, sky and sea, 

Compare with thee, 

See all their splendors sink in shade." 

We have reached the landing place. Again 
we tread in the streets of Cordova, that had sur- 
prised and delighted us so much during our first 
visit. We have not advanced far, when sudden- 
ly there breaks on our ear a voice, loud and 
mighty, as never heard before. We look in the 
direction whence the voice comes, and on the 
graceful balcony around the "minaret" the 


"muezzin," who calleth, with a solemn power in 
his living voice, which neither flag, trumpet, bell 
nor fire could simulate or rival, the Faithful thus 
to prayer: 

"Come to prayer! Come to prayer! Come to 
the Temple of Salvation! Great God! Great 
God! There is no God except God!" 

At the sound of the muezzins call, the throngs 
that crowd the streets hasten their steps, while 
some few stop, and turning towards the Kiblah 
(point of the heaven in the direction of Mecca, 
which is indicated by the position of the minarets,) 
either prostrate themselves upon the ground, or, 
folding their arms across their bosom, bow their 
turbaned head to the ground, and raise their 
heart and voice to Allah. Five times, every day, 
our guide informs us, the muezzin calls the faith- 
ful to prayer. Those who are thus worshiping 
publicly upon the streets, are for some reasons 
prevented from attending the mosque, and the 
Koran allows them to pray in any clean place, 
and the streets of Cordova are clean indeed. 
Prayer is great with the Moors, our guide con- 
tinues. Mohammed has laid great stress upon 
its efficacy and importance. "It is the pillar of 
religion and the key to paradise," said he. "An- 
gels come among you both by night and day, 
when they ascend to heaven God asks them how 
they left his creatures. We found them, say 
they, at their prayers, and we left them at their 
prayers." Even the postures to be observed in 
prayer he had prescribed. Females in prayer 
are not to stretch forth their arms, but to hold 


them on their bosoms. They are not to make as 
deep inflexions as the men. They are to pray 
in a low and gentle tone of voice. They are not 
permitted to accompany the men to the mosque, 
lest the mind of the worshipers should be drawn 
from their devotions. Neither are they allowed 
to worship together with the men. They have 
their gallery in the mosque fenced in with lattice- 
work. No one is permitted to go to prayer 
decked with costly ornaments or clothed in sump- 
tuous apparel. 

While listening to our guide, our feet un- 
consciously followed the hastening throngs, 
and before we were aware of it we stood before 
the "mezquita," the great mosque, the famous 
edifice which, with its buildings and courts, cov- 
ers more space than any place of worship in 
existence, the rival of the Caaba at Mecca, and 
of the Alaska of Jerusalem. Like all Moorish 
architecture, its exterior is very plain. Our guide 
gives us its dimensions; it is 642 feet long and 440 
wide. The height of the Alminar tower is 2 50 feet. 

This is Friday, the "Yawn al Yoma" the great 
day of assembly for worship, the Mohammedan 
Sabbath, sacred because on that day man was 
created, because that day had already been conse- 
crated by the early Arabains to "Astarte," Venus, 
the most beautiful of the planets and the bright- 
est of the stars; and, also because from that day, 
Friday (July 16, 622,) the day of the Hegira, be- 
gins the Mohammedan calender. Our guide as- 
sures us that there are special service on Friday) 
that on this day the Mufti expounds some chap- 


ters from the Koran, and the "Imaum" (preacher,) 
delivers a Khotbefi* (sermon). 

We enter through one of the nineteen lofty 
and massive bronze gates, and the beauties we 
now behold baffle description. 

The "KiblaR* is reached by nineteen aisles, 
marked by columns of jasper, beryl, verd-anti- 
que, porphyry, finely carved, supporting in two 
directions double horse-shoe arches, one above 
the other. These are crossed by thirty-eight 
aisles, also composed of columns of different 
marbles, making thus literally a forest of columns. 
The ceiling is filled with ovals inscribed with ap- 
propriate inscriptions from the Koran, to call the 
mind of the faithful to contemplation and devo- 
tion. From it are suspended 280 chandeliers, 
which light the vast space with upwards of 10,00x5 

The "Al Mihrab" at the "Kibla/i" end of the 
mosque is an octagonal niche, the ceiling of 
which is formed like a shell out of a single block 
of white marble. Within it is the Shrine of 
Shrines, containing one of the original copies of 
the Koran, the one which lay upon the lap of 
Otkman, the third Caliph, our guide tells us, 
when he was assassinated; it is stained with his 
life blood. It lies upon a lecturn of aloe wood, 
put together with golden nails. The doors of 
the shrine are pure gold, the floor solid silver, 
inlaid with gold and lapis lazuli. In front of it is 
the pulpit made of costly woods, inlaid with ivory 
and enriched with jewels; the nails joining its 
parts are also of gold and silver. It is the gilt of 


the Caliph, and the cost exceeds $1,000,000. 
The Caliph himself drew the plan of the entire 
edifice, and assisted daily with his own hands in 
its erection. 

Within the mosque there is a court 220 feet 
long, containing- promenades which invite to de- 
vout meditations, and reservoirs and fountains 
for their ablution, for, as our guide informs us, ablu- 
tion is enjoined by the Koran, with great precission 
as preparative to prayer; purity of body being 
considered emblematical of purity of soul. 

There is not a seat in the entire edifice; the 
worshipers are either prostrated upon the floor, 
which is artistically paved with marble mosaics, 
or they stand profoundly bent in reverence.* 

As the Mufti, his careful ablutions being com- 
pleted, approaches the "Al Mihrab" to take 
from its sacred Shrine the copy of the Koran, all 
prostrate themselves on the ground. He opens 
the book, and with a loud voice he reads the first 
"sura" chapter: 

"Bismillali' in the name of the most merci- 
ful God. Praise be to God, the Lord of all creat- 
ures, the Most Merciful, the King of the Day of 
Judgment. Thee do we worship, and of Thee do 
we beg assistance. ^ Direct us in the right way, 
in the way of those to whom Thou hast been gra- 
cious; not of those against whom thou art in- 
censed, not of those who go astray." 

* For detailed description of the "Great Mezquita," see Conde's 
"History of the Arabs in Spain," Vol. I, Chapter XXXIV, and Coppee's 
"Conquest in Spain," Book X, Chapter V; lor Belief and Worship," see 
Conde, and Irving's "Mahomet," appendix to volume I. 


To which the whole congregation responds: 
"God, there is no God but He, the Living, the 
Ever Living; He sleepeth not, neither doth He 
slumber. To Him belongeth the Heavens and 
the earth, and all that they contain. He know- 
eth the Past and the Future, but no one can com- 
prehend anything of this knowledge but that 
which He revealeth. His sway extendeth over 
the Heavens and the Earth, and to sustain them 
both is no burden to Him. He is the high, the 
mighty. There is no God besides Him. and 
"Mohammed Rcsul Allah" Mohammed is the pro- 
phet of God."* The Mufti now expounds a 
chapter from the Koran, and at the end of each of 
its lessons the whole congregation responds, 
"Amin!" '*So be it." 

The "Imaum" ascends the pulpit to preach his 
sermon. He bases his theme upon me chapter 
just expounded. He speaks of faith and practice, 
of faith in God, in his angels, in his Koran, in his 
prophets, in the resurrection and final judgement, 
in predestination. "Angels," he says," keep con- 
tinual watch upon each mortal, one on the right 
hand, the other on the left, taking note of every 
word or action. At the close of each day they 
fly up to heaven to write up their report. Every 
good action is recorded ten times by the good 
angel on the right, and if the mortal commit a sin 
the same benevolent spirit says to the angel on 
the left: "Forbear for seven hours to record it; 
peradventure he may repent and pray and obtain 

*Koran, part of Sura II. 


He enjoins a reverence for the Al Koran, and 
a scrupulous obedience to its precepts. In it are 
written all the decrees of God, and all events past, 
present or to come. It had existed from all etern- 
ity and was treasured up in the seventh heaven, 
and its contents were finally revealed to Moham- 
med by the Angel Gabriel. 

He speaks of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, 
Jesus, as prophets subordinate to Mohammed, 
whose life and preceipts are worthy of following. 

He speaks of predestination, and says that every 
event is predetermined by God, that the destiny 
of every individual and the hour of his death are 
irrevocably fixed, and can neither be varied nor 
evaded, by any effort of human sagacity or 

He reconciles fate and free-will by saying: 
"The outline is given us we color the picture of 
life as we will." 

He speakes of Charity, and says that every 
one must dispense, in one way or the other, a 
tenth of his revenue in the relief of the indigent 
or distressed. He speakes of the great virtue of 
fasting and says : "Prayer leads us half way to 
God, fastening conveys us to His threshold and 
alms conducts us into His presence." He enjoins 
the doing of good and the shunning of evil, and 
above all an observance of the golden rule. 

"If these precepts ye obey," he concludes, "the 
pleasures of Paradise will be your reward. There 
you will be clothed in raiments sparkling with 
jewels. You will wear crowns of gold enriched 
with pearls and diamonds, and dwell in sumptu- 


ous palaces or silken pavilions, reclining in vol- 
uptuous couches. Hundreds of attendants, bear- 
ing dishes and goblets of gfold, will serve you 
with every variety of exquisite viands and bever- 
age, whenever and in whatever quantity you shall 
want them. There the air, frao rant with the sweet- 


est perfume, resounds with the melodious voices of 
the Daughters of Paradise. There, besides your 
wives you had on earth, who will rejoin you. in all 
their pristine charms, black-eyed Hooreeyaks 
(Houris) having complexions like rubies and 
pearls, resplendent beings, free from every hu- 
man defect or frailty, perpetually retaining their 
youth and beauty, will constantly attend you, and 
cheerfully obey your wishes. 

But woe unto you if ye harken not to the words 
of Allah and Mohammed his prophet! When ye 
shall pass the bridge, Al Si rat, which is finer 
than a hair and sharper than a sword, it will 
break beneath the burden of your sins, and pre- 
cipitate you into the shadow and smoke and fire 
of hell." 

With a prayer for the welfare of the Caliph and 
the entire government, the "khotbeh" is ended 
and the congregation dismissed. 

We know that the Moors and Jews are Orient- 
al people, and, therefore, not indigenous to the 
Occidental soil they now inhabit. Whence 
came they? Why came they? We are eager 
fora correct answer to these questions, and know- 
ing none of Cordova's learned men. we think of 
our distinguished co-religionist, Abu Jussitf 


Chasdai ben Isaac Ibn Shaprut, the Jewish Phys- 
ician, Philologist, Minister of Foreign Affairs, of 
Commerce and Finance to the learned Abdcr 
Rahman, and Nasi, or secular chief, of all Euro- 
pean Jews. We take the heart to visit him, and 
with the aid of our guide, we soon are admitted 
into the house. There we learn that Chasdai 
Ibn Shaprut had just been summoned to a secret 
consultation with the Caliph concerning an im- 
portant embassy that had come from Otto /, 
Emperor of Germany. We are asked to await 
his return in his library. There, we are intro- 
duced to Moses ben Chanoch, the distinguished 
Talmudist, to his pupil, Joseph ben Abitur, the 
translator of the Mishnah into Arabic for the 
Caliph's library, to Menackem ben Saruk, the 
grammarian and compiler of the first Hebrew 
lexicon, and to Dunash ben Lab rat, the distin- 
guished poet, who were pursuing their respective 
studies in the magnificent library of Chasdai, the 
Jewish favorite Minister to the Caliph. 

We state our wish, and Dunash ben Labrat 
thus replies: 

"We know not when our distinguished Nasi 
will return. If, indeed, it be agreeable to you, I 
will ask you to accompany me to my friend Ab- 
dallah Ibn Xamri, the famous Moorish poet and 
erudite historian, with whom I have arranged a 
game of chess for this afternoon's siesta. He 
will, I know, give you such information concern- 
ing the history of the Arab- Moors as you may 
desire. When this shall have been done, we 



shall make our way back again, Chasdai will have 
returned, and he will gladly give you an account 
of the Entrance of the Jews into Spain." 

We cheerfully accept his kind proposal. We 
are on our way now, and in the following chapter 
we shall faithfully report all that we shall see and 






In a beautiful valley on the banks of the Gaud- 
alquivir, about five miles from Cordova, within 
sight of the Caliph's magnificent palace of Medi- 
na-al-Zohar (town of the flower) stands the pict- 
uresque residence of the Moorish poet, Abdallah 
Ibn Xamri. Dunash ben Labrat, the distinguish- 
ed Jewish poet, our new found friend and guide, 
has no need for a formal announcement. A 
massive bronze gate opens into a beautifully 
paved court yard, from the center of which issues 
the never-failing fountain jet to a dazzling height, 
diffusing refreshing coolness and making a pleas- 
ant patter of the falling drops into the basin. A 
gallery encircles this court, supported by slender 


columns of alabaster, from which spring numbers 
of graceful horseshoe arches. The interspaces 
above the arches are filled with arabesques, inter- 
wreathing striking texts from the Koran in bril- 
liant red and blue and gold. Above these are 
the latticed windows which light the seraglio. 

From this luxurious court we pass through a dou- 
ble archway into another, abounding with tropi- 
cal plants. Here within the concealment of the 
densest shade trees, is a very long oblong marble 
basin, supplied with artificially cooled water. 
Here, in the early morning and in the evening 
twilight, the indolent, the warm, the weary bathe 
in luxurious languor. Here the women meet to 
disport themselves, while the entrances are 
guarded by eunuchs against intrusion. From 
this private court a postern leads into a beautiful 
garden with mazy walks and blooming parterres, 
replete with artificial grottoes and kiosks of stain- 
ed glass, and terraces of polished marbles, and 
balustrades supported by guilded columns, and 
ponds filled with gold and silver fishes. 

"Here we shall find Abdallah Ibn Xamri/'says 
Dunash ben Labrat; "he delights to take his 
siesta within yonder pavilion, which is well pro- 
vided with books and musical instruments. 
There his beautiful daughter Zelica tunes the 
lyre as he courts the muses, and her melodious 
voice has inspired his most wondrous lyric 

Abdallah recognizes Dunash's voice, and bids 


him enter. We obey the summons. Surprise is 
visible in Abdallah's countenance as he gazes up- 


on our strange faces. Before us stands a typical 
Moor. His person is well formed. He has an 
oval face, aquiline nose, long and arched eye- 
brow, nearly meeting, large restless black eyes, 
smooth skin, clear olive complexion, full dark 
hair and beard, and an elastic springy step. His 
head is covered with a green woolen cap of 
cylindrical form from which hangs a blue tassel. 
Over a long straight robe of light cloth, he wears a 
shorter tunic, elaborately embroidered. Sandals 
are tied to his feet with strings of twisted silver 
and gold. 

We exchange Salams. Our friend introduces 
us. In measured rhyme he states that he had 
brought us to Cordova's distinguished son of the 
muses to learn from the most authentic source 
the ''History of the entrance of the Arab-Moors in- 
to Spain." Abdallah receives us cordially, asks us 
to recline upon the divan the cushioned seats run- 
ning along the walls of the pavilion he takes 
his re-clining position opposite us, and after a 
few in-troductory remarks he speaks as follows: 

"The great peninsula, formed by the Red Sea, 
by the Euphrates, by the Gulf of Persia 
and by the Indian ocean, and known by the 
name of Arabia, is the birthplace of our creed. 
It was peopled soon after the deluge by the chil- 
dren of Shem, the son of Noah. In course of 
time the brave Yarab established the kingdom 
of Yemen, whence the Arabs derive the names 
of themselves and their country. During a long- 
succession of ages, extending from the earliest 
period of recorded history down to the seventh 


century, Arabia remained unchanged and unaf- 
fected by the events which convulsed the rest of 
Asia and shook Europe and Africa to their very 
center. The occupations of the people were 
trade and agriculture. The former had ports 
along the coasts, and carried on foreign trade by 
means of ships and caravans. The nomadic 
Arabs were the more numerous of the two. The 
necessity of being always on the alert to defend 
their flocks and herds made these familiar from 
their infancy, with the exercise of arms. No one 
could excel them in the use of the bow, the 
lance and the scimitar, and the adroit and grace- 
ful management of the horse. They were more, 
at home on horseback than on foot. The horse 
was their friend and companion. They lived and 
talked with him and lavished upon him their 
dearest affection, and both were capable of sus- 
taining great fatigue and hardship. The Arabs 
possessed in an eminent degree the intellectual 
attributes of the Shemitic race. Penetrating sa- 
gacity, subtle wit, a ready conception, a brilliant 
imagination, a proud and daring spirit were 
stamped upon their sallow visage, and flashed from 
their dark and kindling eye. Our language, nat- 
urally poetic, made them poets and the most elo- 
quent of men. They were generous and hospita- 
ble. Their deadliest foe, having once broken bread 
with them, could repose securely beneath the in- 
violable sancity of their tent. Their religion 
originally consisted of a belief in the unity of 
God, in future life, in the necessity of prayer and 
virtue. This was the creed of Abraham and was 


brought to them by Ishmael and Hagar. In the 
course of time it became contaminated with 
Sabean star worship and Magian idolatry. 

When Palestine was ravaged by the Romans, 
and the city of Jerusalem taken and sacked, 
many of the Jews took refuge among them, and 
gradually many of the tenets of the Jewish faith 
and practices of the Jewish worship were again 
insensibly adopted by them. The same refuge 
Arabia offered later to many Christians who 
were fleeing from the persecutions of Rome, and 
these also engrafted gradually, some of their rites 
and ceremonies and beliefs upon the people. 
The result was a mixture of religious beliefs, the 
highest religious principles alternating with the 
most degrading idolatries. There was no accept- 
ed creed, no unified faith. 

A great reformer was needed, and the great 
Allah sent his prophet, Mohammed, to establish 
the only true faith: Islmism His birth was ac- 
companied by signs and portents, announcing a 
child of wonder. f At the moment of his coming 
into the world, a celestial light, illuminated the 
surrounding country, and the new-born child, 
raising his eyes to heaven, exclaimed "God is 
great! There is no God but God, and I am his 
Prophet." Heaven and earth were agitated at 
his advent. Palaces, and temples and mountains 
toppled to the earth. The fires, sacred to Zo- 
roaster, which had burned, without interruption 
for upwards of a thousand years, were suddenly 

f Talmud Babli in Sotah ij a, speaks of a similar supernatural light at 
the birth of Moses. 


extinguished, and all the idols in the world fell 
down. Though his true Messiahship was thus 
made evident at his birth, and in his youth, he 
still waited to the age of fully ripened manhood 
before he made the attempt of establishing the 
creed, which the angel Gabriel, had written down 
for him upon palm leaves. But when the time 
had come for raising his own nation from fetich- 
ism, from the adoration of a meteoric stone, and 
from the basest idol worship, he awakened his 
people out of their religious and political torpor, 
kindled the fire of enthusiasm among them, and 
they thirsted after opportunities for contest and 

When death took the sword from his hand ten 
years later, the whole world trembled at the very 
mention of his name. 

Here Abdallah pauses in his narative. He 
touches a silver bell, and soon a maiden appears. 
This is the first time that we are permitted to 
gaze upon a Moorish woman's face; those we 
met in the streets or parks, or saw behind the 
latticework of the woman's gallery in the mos- 
que, were always clothed in the mantilla, which 
encircled their entire form, and their faces were 
always hidden under the face veil, or under the 
horsehair vizard, which left but the eyes vis- 
ible. She wears her hair braided. A light cap 
or cornet, adorned with gems, forms the cover- 
ing for her head. The side locks are entwined 
with coral beads, hung loosely to chinck with 


every movement. Full white muslin trousers are 
tied at the arikle with golden strings that end in 
merry little silver bells. A long full white man- 
tle of transparent muslin coyers the tight-fitting 
vest and jacket of silk, both of brilliant colors, 
and embroidered and decorated with woven 
gold. , Around her neck anc} arms nnd wrists she 
wears chains,, necklaces and bracelets, of gold, 
:and of coral' and pearls and amber. 

He whispers something in her ear, and immed- 
iately she disappears, light as an angel shape. A 
d'iep silence ensues. At that 'moment we think 
not of Mohammed, the founder of a new faith 
and the conqueror of the world, but of Zelica* 
Abdallah's daughter, that beauteous maiden, 
whose complexion vies with the rubies and white 
jasmine flowers she wears more radiant still when 
her dazzling eyes drooped, and when" the scarlet 
hue of innocence mantled her face as her glance 
met the eyes of men and strangers. 

Abdallah had ordered refreshments! Servants 
appear and spread an embroidered rug upon the 
floor. Upon it they place a low tray, set with 
silver and fine earthenware, and provided with 
the choicest of fruits, confections and sherbets 
flavored with violet. Low cushions are placed 
around it, upon which we, following the example 
of our host and guide, seat ourselves with our 
legs crossed. Before eating, a servant pours 
water on our hands from a basin and ewer. The 
meal begins with "BismilaK" for grace. A very 
interesting conversation, displaying great learn- 
ing and much reading, is carried on between the 


two poets, as to whether Cordova or Bagdad 
leads the world in literature, art, science, and 
philosophy. Abdalah champions Cordova, Du- 
nash favors Bagdad, his native home. 

The delicious repast is ended. The floor is 
cleared, Abdallah resumes his narrative. 

"The successors of Mohammed," says he, "fol- 
lowed in the footsteps of our prophet. They passed 
beyond the . confines of Arabia, and persecuted 
their work of converting the world, giving to the 
conquered the choice between the Koran, or 
Tribute, or Death. In less than fifty years after 
the Prophet's death, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Me- 
sopotamia, Persia, Armenia, Asia Minor had ac- 
cepted the religion of Mohammed. In Jerusalem 
a mosque stood on the site where once the 
temple of Solomon stood. In Alexandria the 
Mohammedans wrought direful vengeance on 
Christians for the crimes which the arrogant and 
fanatical St. Cyril had committed there two cen- 
turies before, by extirpating Grecian learning and 
by inciting his monks to murder the wise Hypa- 

The extreme northern part of Africa brought 
'their armies to a sudden halt. Here they en- 
counter two strong foes. First, the people called 
Berbers "the Noble," a tall, noble looking race of 
men, active, high-spirited and indomitable. They 
had the same patriarchal habits, the same Shemi- 
tic features, were equally skilled in the use of arms 
and the breeding and handling of horses, and so 
the Arabs believed them- to be of their own race. 
This Northern coast of Africa has been called by 


the Romans, from the dark complexion of 
its people: Mauritania, and its people were 
called Mooriscos, orMoors. When the superior 
force of the Arabians compelled the Moors to 
submit at last, the conquerors and the conquered 
coalesced so completely, that in less than a de- 
cade the one could not be distinguished from the 

"The second foe, however, who inhabited the 
Northern extremity of Almagreb, where the con- 
tinent of Africa protrudes boldly to meet the con- 
tinent of Europe, was not so easily overcome. 
The rock- built city of Ceuta was garrisoned by 
Spanish soldiers, and its brave commander, 
Count Julian, defied the 'valiant Amir Musa Ibn 
Nosseyr, the Hero of Two Continents. It seem- 
ed as if Islamism had reached its limit, that it 
would never set its foot upon beautiful Andalusia, 
at which it had so often cast its wistful eye. But 
Allah favored the onward march of the religion 
of the Prophet! The wrong done by the wicked 
Roderick, King of Spain, to the young and beau- 
tiful Florinda, daughter of Count: Julian, the 
brave commander ot Ceuta, opened Europe to the 
Arab-Moors. "By the living God," exclaimed 
the insulted father. "I will be revenged." 

He soon found willing allies, consisting of the 
nobles, who could no longer endure the despot- 
ism of King Roderick, and of the Jews, who had 
been expelled from Spain. Encouraged by these 
allies Count Julian entered into negotiations 
with Amir Musa for the delivery of Spain into 
his hands. Musa accepted cheerfully. 


"Long had the crimes of Spain cried out to Heaven: 
At length the measure of offence was full. 
Count Julian called the invader. 

.... Mad to wreak 
His vengeance for his deeply injured child 
On Roderick's head, an evil hour for Spain, 
For that unhappy daughter, and himself. 
Desperate apostate, on the Moors he called, 
And, like a cloud of locusts, whom the wind 
Wafts from the plains of wasted Africa, 
The Mussulman upon Iberia's shores 
Descends. A countless multitude they came: 
Syrian, Moors, Saracen, Greek renegade, 
Persian, and Copt, and Latin, in one band 
Of Islam's faith conjoined, strong in the youth 
And heat of zeal, a dreadful brotherhood." 

The valiant Tarik crossed with a selected 
force, the strait between the Pillars of Hercules, 
which is now named after him " Gibr-al- TariK' 
(Gibraltar), "the rock of Tarik." On the 24th of 
July, 711, the two armies met at the river of 
Guadalete, not far from Xeres, and after a three 
days' battle a small force of picked men, the in- 
domitable horsemen of the desert, routed 80,000 
Spaniards, amidst terrible carnage. Tarik pressed 
eagerly forward. Cordova, Malaga, Toledo, Meri- 
da, surrendered after little or no opposition. In 
six years later the Arab-Moors were complete 
masters of Spain, and have been so unto this 

Abdallah has ended his narrative. Unconsci- 
ously, it seems, he takes the lute at his side, and 
running his fingers over the strings, he strikes a 
few chords and finally, as if desirious of supple- 
menting his version of the entrance of Arab- 


Moors into Europe, he makes the lute accompany 
his recital of some of the songs and verses he 
had composed in commemoration of the victory 
of the Arab-Moors over fair Andalusia, and 
which have since become as popular in Bag-dad 
and Antioch as in Cordova or Granada. We 
wish, but our wish is in vain, that Zelica might 
return to her wonted task, that her young and 
melodious voice might blend with the melting 
strains of the Moorish bard. 

The heroic theme inspires Abdallah more and 
more. He begins to improvise. He defends 
Florinda, whom the Spaniards execrate, and 
name "La Cava" "the Wicked." He sings of 
Roderick's entering the cave over which was writ- 
ten: " The king who opens this cave and discov- 
ers its wonders ivill learn both good and evil" 
and, how upon entering it he read this fatal in- 
scription on the walls: "Unhappy King, tJiou 
hast entered in an evil hour. By strange nations 
thou shalt be dispossessed, and thy people de- 
graded" He sings of the combat between Tarik 
and Roderick. He sings of the captive queen 
Egilona. He sings of the jealousy between 
Mousa and Tarik, and of other themes, heroic 
and beautiful. 

The muezzins summons to evening prayer 
stops his muse, and makes our hasty departure 
necessary, for it is Friday evening, and the 
distance to the synagogue is long. We part 
hastily. Before leaving, however, Abdallah ex- 
acts a promise from Dunash that he will send for 
him whenever Chasdai ben Isaac, the distinguish 


ed Jewish Minister to the Caliph, shall tell us the 
History of the Entrance of the Jews into 


Translated by J. G. Lockhart. 

The host of Don Rodrigo were scattered in dismay, 
When lost was the eighth battle, nor heart nor hope had they; 
He, when he saw the field was lost, and all his hope was flown, 
He turned him from his flying host and took his way alone, 

His horse was bleeding, blind, and lame, he could no farther go, 
Dismounted, without path or aim, the king stepped to and fro. 
It was a sight of pity to look on Roderick, 
For sore athirst and hungry he staggered faint and sick. 

All stained and strewed with dust and blood, like to some smoulder- 
ing brand 

Pluck'd from the flame, Rodrigo shew'd. His swcrd was in his 

Hut it \vas hacked into a saw ofdark and purple tint; 

His jewell'd mail had many a flaw, his helmet many a dint. 

He climbed unto a hill-top, the highest he could see, 
Thence all about of that wild route his last long look took he. 
He saw his royal banners where they lay drenched and torn, 
He heard the cry of victory, the Arabs' shout of scorn: 

He look'd for the brave captains that had led the hosts of Spain, 
But all were fled except the dead, and who could count the slain? 
Where'er his eyes could wander, all bloody was the plain; 
And while thus he said the tears he shed ran down his cheeks like 

"Last night I was the King of Spain, to-day no king am I; 
Last night fair castles held my train, to-night where shall I lie; 
Last night a hundred pages did serve me on the knee, 
To-night not one I call my own, not one pertains to me. 

"O luckless, luckless was the hour, and cursed was the day 
When I was born to have the power of this great seigniory; 
Unhappy me that I should live to see the sun go down this night, 
O Death, why now so slow art thou, why fearest thou to smite?" 












A paved walk, guarded on each side by majes- 
tic cypress trees, winding its course along ter- 
raced gardens and near refreshing fountains, 
leads up to the lofty eminence on which stands 
the only synagogue of Cordova. Almost breath- 
less we reach the height. We express our sur- 
prise that the Synagogue, visited twice daily, and 
thrice on the Sabbath day, should have been lo- 
cated so inconveniently, to which our distinguish- 
ed friend Dunash ben Labrat replies: "Such is 
the custom in Israel, both Solomon* and Ezraf 
have established the custom of building the Syna- 
gogue on a lofty eminence, and the Talmud 
teaches: "The city whose houses are higher 
than its houses of worship will be destroyed." % 

* Proverbs, i:21. f Ezra. ix:9. \ Talmud Babli Sabbath, 11 a. 


Before entering, we pause awhile to cast our 
eyes about us. Were we standing on Mount 
Moriah, of deathless memory, with the gorgeous 
temple of Solomon before us, and with the sacred 
scenery of Jerusalem and her environments about 
us, even such scenes could not have awed us 
more than those which fascinate our heart and 
mind on the temple-mount of Cordova, the 
brightest gem in the proud diadem of fair Anda- 

At the foot of the mount glides the silvery 
Guadalquivir. The blushing sun is sinking be- 
hind the azure hills, and houses and synagogues 
and foliage and fountain and river, all are crim- 
son tinted, while the fleecy cloudlets, that float 
in his radiant tracks, are resplendent with colors 
of purple and violet and gold and red. The 
evening star sparkles in the rosy sky so benign- 
ly, as if it were the eye of God, pleased at 
seeing His "chosen people" hasten to prostrate 
themselves before His footstool. The golden 
glimmering vapors, that rise from beneath the 
illumined horizon into infinite space, seem to 
vault over the Synagogue, as if bestowing celes- 
tial Sabbath blessing over its worshipers. All 
nature around us inspires to worship. The 
nightingales have begun their evening hymns, 
and the air is loud with the soft melting notes of 
the skylarks, who sing their sweet "Good Night" 
to the sunken sun. Our soul, too, is filled with 
a yearning to commune with God, and so we turn 
toward the synagogue. 

Like the mezquita (mosque) its exterior facade 


is plain and unnoteworthy. We enter the high 
and spacious vestibule, and our eye is dazzled 
with all the magnificence, with the harmonious 
blending of colors, with the costly, but chaste 
ornamentations. The cupola above admits a 
free circulation of air, bringing the sweet frag- 
rance of the surrounding gardens. On the one 
side is heard the refreshing sound of the flowing 
waters within the reservoirs for ablution, and 
on the other side the soft splash from the foun- 
tain jets in the garden. 

Within the synagogue proper, clusters of de- 
licate columns of various marbles and of costly 
woods, support double galleries, one above the 
other, with lattice work in front, that the black- 
eyed and raven-locked and comely-featured He- 
brew women may not draw the mind of the wor- 
shipers beneath from their devotions. The gal- 
leries are empty now. The Hebrew women do 
not attend the service of the Sabbath Eve. 
They are at home awaiting the return of their 
husbands, fathers, brothers, All day long have 
they been busy in the preparation for the Sabbath. 
The house has been put in order. The choicest 
that means would allow and the market afford 
has been secured and prepared for the festive 
Sabbath meal. Upon the table, decked with 
snow white linens, and with the tempting dishes, 
burn the lights in the heavy silver candlesticks, 
and the traditional seven-armed Sabbath lamp, 
suspended from the center of the ceiling, having 
been lighted with Sabbath benedictions by the 
queen of the house, sheds a hallowed light over 


mother, wife and daughter, who are attired in 
their neatest, and whose countenances are flush- 
ed from the day's busy task, and whose eyes 
beam, and whose hearts beat with joyous expec- 

But we have strayed from the description of 
the galleries of the synagogue to the women in 
their homes. What wonder the Spanish Jews 
had need of their latticed railings! 

The interspaces between the graceful horseshoe 
arches and the ovals in the ceiling are delicately 
pencilled with brilliant colors, and the walls are 
filled with arabesques interwreathing appropriate 
Hebrew texts. 

The wall to the east, the direction towards 
Jerusalem, holds the Haichal, the shrine, in 
\vhichis kept the Thora, the parchment scrolls of 
the Pentateuch. 

The shrine is canopied by a wondrously de- 
signed shell-shaped covering, inlaid with mother- 
of-pearl, ivory and silver. A curtain of silk and 
woven gold, and decorated with gems of chryso- 
lite and emerals and sapphires, serves as a screen 
to this "Holy of Holies." Over this shell-shaped 
canopy is an illuminated window of artistic work 
manship, inscribed in brilliant colors with the 
words, "Yehi Or" "Let there be light." The 
moon, queen of the night, rides in the cloudless 
sky, and she sends her peerless light through 
this double-triangled window, and the effect is 
most sublime. 

Suspended from the ceiling, and directly in 
front of the curtain is the Neer Tamid the "Per- 


petual Lamp," famous for its wondrous beauty 
and for its priceless value, the gift of the mother 
of Chasdai ben Isaac, and its mellow light 
sends a hallowing influence over the congregants. 
Beneath it are the pyramidal steps, from which 
the descendants of the High-Priest Aaron bestow, 
on the great holidays, the priestly blessings upon 
the congregation. To the right and left of these 
stand the mnorotk, the high seven-armed cande- 
labra, a faithful copy of the Biblical designf. 

In front of the steps stands the throne-like 
chair, in which is seated Chasdai ben Isaac, the 
Nasi, secular head of all European Jews, the 
Resh Kallah, President of the Academy for the 
Talmudical Sciences at Pumbadita in Babylonia, 
the Minister of Foreign Affairs, and of Commerce, 
and of Finance to the Caliph Abderrahman III. 

To the right of the shrine, on a raised plat- 
form, are seated Rabbi Moses ben Chanoch, the 
Dayan, the chief judge and chief rabbi of all 
European Jews; at his rightthe Skliach Hazibiir, 
the Reader, is seated; at his left his Chief As- 
sistant Dayan; at his feet sit the most advanced 
disciples of his far-famed academy. 

To the left of the "Shrine" is seated the Rosh 
HaKneseth, the President of the congregation; 
behind his chair stands the Chazan Hakneseth, the 
beadle, to his right and left the officers of the con- 
gregation are seated, at their feet sit the elders. 

These three groups sit with their faces towards 
the congregation, while the congregation faces 
the shrine. In the center of this capacious inter- 

f Exodus xxv : 31-86. 


ior is the ''Almemor," or the "Bimah," a spacious 
elevated platform of magnificent design. A bal- 
ustrade encircles this platform, whose balusters, 
as well as those of the graceful stairways that lead 
up to the platform on both sides, are of delicate 
alabaster columns. On this "Bimah" is the Read- 
er's desk, and the Rabbi's pulpit, placed there, that 
the vast audience may have the opportunity of 
advantageous hearing. 

From the ceiling great chandeliers are suspend- 
ed, which shed a shower of light upon the host of 
worshipers, and streaming through the inexpress- 
ibly beautiful stained-glass windows, the syna- 
gogue, that towers high above the city of Cor- 
dova, sheds its benign rays of holiness and peace 
and good will over the city and all its people. 

The floor of the vestibule is composed of mar- 
ble, mosaics and glazed tiles, so joined as to form 
various complicated patterns of surpassing beauty. 
The floor of the synagogue is covered with em- 
broidered Persian carpets. 

Though the seats are filled, and the officers are 
in their respective places 

"No sound is uttered but a deep 
And solemn harmony pervades." 

Verily, the Hebrews understand the essence of 
worship well. There is in every prayerful soul 
that indefinable yearning and longing after the 
infinite, after the highest and the sublimest that 
can give eloquent utterance in deep silence only. 
The soul may stammer forth its wants and its 
thanks, but its deepest, innermost feelings never. 


Therefore have the Jews established the custom 
that the service of expression shall ever be pre- 
ceded by the still more sacred service of silent 

The strange surroundings, and the wondrous 
sights, have so completely taken hold of our mind 
that it cannot find that calm repose so necessary 
for silent devotion, and so, while the others are 
lost in meditations our mind, continues its obser- 

Two men rivet our attention. The one is 
Chasdai ben Isaac, one of those awe-and-respect- 
commanding and love-and-confidence-inspiring 
appearances we meet with but rarely in life. His 
features present an embodiment of three distinct 
races. His high and square forehead, his deep- 
set eye, his aquiline nose, his prominent chin, 
indicative of profound wisdom, of capacities to 
command and of great will power; these bespeak 
the Palestinian Hebrew. The grace and come- 
liness of the figure bespeak the Moor. His tall, 
majestic form, full of life and vigor, bespeak the 
European Visigoth. 

No less attractive is the person of Rabbi Moses 
Ben Chanoch. There is something strange and 
fascinating in his intelligent countenance. Some 
strange, sweet melancholy seems to hover about 
his eyes. The lines of his face fall into an expres- 
sion of mild suffering, of endurance swetened and 
sustained by holiness and -resignation to God's 
will. He seems to be more deeply lost in medi- 
tation than any of the rest. Now and then his 
forehead wrinkles, and his lips quiver, as if in 


pain, and his teeth close, as if suppressing a cry 
of anguish. 

Is the great and learned and pious Rabbi, 
revered wherever a Jewish heart beats, whether 
in Asia or in Africa or in Europe, through whom 
the light of Eastern learning, which, by the 
dispersion of the illustrious teachers, and by the 
final closing of the great schools, seemed to have 
been extinguished forever, suddenly rose again 
in the West in renewed and undiminished 
splendor, is he really lost in pious meditations? 
We have our suspicious, and may God pardon us 
if we suspect him wrongfully. 

"There are moments when silence, prolonged and unbroken, 
More expressive may be than all words ever spoken, 
It is when the heart has an instinct of what 
In the heart of another is passing." * 

It may be, he recalls the day of his departure 
from Sura, in company with his young and beauti- 
ful wife, and his little son, and three other young 
and eminent rabbis, Rabbi Sahamaria ben 
Elchanan, Rabbi Chuschiel and Rabbi Nathan 
ben Isaac Kohen, for the purpose of raising funds 
for the academy at Sura, which was then in its 
last throes. He is recalling, perhaps, the har- 
rowing scene when they were taken captive along 
the Italian coast by the Spanish-Moorish pirate, 
Admiral Ibn Rumachis. His quivering lips and 
wrinkled brow and his suppressed cry of anguish 
betray his thinking of the evil designs which the 
pirate admiral carried in his toul heart against 
his young and beautiful wife; how she, the pious 

* Lucile, Pt. II., Canto I., St. 20 


and innocent, preferring- death to infamy, had 
asked him, concealing the motive: whether there 
is resurrection for those who perish in the sea; 
and how he, unsuspecting, answered in the 
affirmative, basing it upon Psalm Ixviii: 23. "The 
Lord said, I will bring again from Bashon, / will 
bring again from the depths of the sea" how she, 
no sooner had the answer been given, plunged 
into the sea, and the raging billows swallowed his 
young and beautiful wife, the mother of his young 
and only child. 

Hence, his wrinkled brow and quivering lip and 
melancholy expression on the blessed Sabbath 
eve. No illuminated home awaits him. No wife 
that has cheerfully labored all day long to prepare 
for the festive reception of the Sabbath. No wife 
to greet him with her cheery smile, and with her 
wise and pure and holy converse to dispel the 
cares and worries of the week. No mother to 
press his child against her love-beating bosom 
and call him, too, "My own sweet child." 

His thoughts continue in their wandering. He 
recalls the day when he was sold as slave to 
Cordova; how he was ransomed by the Jewish 
community, though his quality and learning were 
unknown; how he entered, one day, the school 
for Talmud studies, over which Rabbi NatJian, 
"Dayan" of the Jews of Cordova, presided; how 
he, ashamed of his costume of sackcloth, seated 
himself in a corner, at a respectful distance from 
the disciples; how he, aroused, at last, by the 
false decisions of the ignorant Rabbi Nathan, 
forgetting in his excitement his humble state, and 


his costume of sackcloth, ventured to correct, 
with becoming modesty, the decisions rendered; 
how all eyes had turned towards the poor slave; 
how, to draw forth his learning, Rabbi Nathan 
entered into a debate with him, in which he 
evinced such profound scholarship that Rabbi 
Nathan exclaimed with enthusiastic admiration. 

"I am no longer Head of this School Yon 
slave in sackcloth is my master, and I his disciple." 

His mind continues in its reveries. He recalls 
how he had been installed by acclamation as 
Head of the Jewish community; how he had 
gained the favor of Chasdai and of the Caliph ; 
how his great school was founded and is flourish- 
ing now, and is the most famous in the Jewish 
literary world. 

His face becomes more and more placid. He 
recognizes the finger of God in his fate. His 
capture, and that of his three colleagues, he sees 
now, has been providential. They had been 
destined to carry the knowledge from the schools 
of Babylon to Africa and Europe. His colleagues 
had fared equally as well. Rabbi Sahamaria ben 
Elchanan had been sold as a slave to Alexandria, 
where he, too, was ransomed by the Jewish com- 
munity, and later he also established a flourish- 
ing school at "Misr" (Kahira). Rabbi Chuschiel 
met with the same fate. He w r as sold to Kairuan, 
on the coast of Africa, and there he, too, opened 
a school. Rabbi Nathan ben Isaac Kohen was 
sold to Narbonne, France, and, as if fate had so 
ordered it, he too opened a flourishing school at 
that place. He would have continued his reveries 



had not the "SKliach Hazibur aroused him, who 
leaves his side, and mounting the "Almemor" 
takes his place at his desk. The services are to 
begin, and so we, too, must cease our observa- 
tions, and unite with our co-religionists in their 
joyous and reverential greeting of the weekly 
Sabbath, the blessed Day of Rest. 













The "S/i7zac/i Hazibur" (Reader) has taken 
his position before the lecturn upon the "Bimah" 
From a voluminous parchment folio he chants the 
beautiful and joyous Psalms xcv, xcix, cii, in that 
fascinating musical recitative, peculiar to Hebrew 
liturgy, so joyous and yet so holy, so gay and 
yet so reverential, so intensely sacred, so relig- 
iously elevating as to lift the worshiper on its 
mighty pinions, gently, form week-day life into 
the higher and purer Sabbath realm. 

The "Reader" and the congregation sing 
alternate verses. What a grand chorus of human 
voices! What majestic strains wing their heaven- 
ward flight! How sublime a music to hear these 


hundreds of men entune their sacred anthems to 
God. Sweet is the sound of the melting harp 
and of the warbling lute, but sweeter than both 
is the music that rises from the warm human 
breast. Touching are the strains of the night- 
ingale and the lark, but sublimest and most 
touching of all is the sacred music that rises from 
the innermost depths of the strong and masculine 
heart. Such 

"Music religious heat inspires, 
It wakes the soul and lifts it high 
And wings it with sublime desires, 
And fits it to bespeak the Deity." 

To hear a man weep, to see his strong bosom 
melt in tears and his great grief express itself in 
eloquent sobs, breaks another's heart, to hear 
him sing with fervor and devotion the praises of 
God, gives the strongest stay to the human soul. 
When men sincerely sing religious songs their 
hearts speak. When we hear the Elders in front, 
yon saintly patriarchs, laureled with the silver 
crown of three and four and five score years, 
mingle their voices with those of the young in 
the religious songs, we know such songs raise 
their weary souls above mortal weakness, soften 
their pain to ease, stay the ruthless hand of fell 
disease, and force death itself to sheathe, yet 
awhile, his unsparing scythe, and our lips invol- 
untarily breathe forth the benediction: Praised 
be Thou, O God, who hast blessed us with the 
gift of song. 

The congregation rises and the "Reader" 
chants aloud the Borchu, the appeal to the con- 


gregation "to worship God, the Worship deserv- 
ing-," to which they answer: "Yea, we will 
worship God, for deserving of praise is He, now 
and evermore." 

They resume their seats and continue their 
prayers. They render thanks for the genial hour 
of twilight, which bids the weary laborer cease, 
and takes him to his peaceful home, and rewards 
him there with shelter and with rest. They 
render thanks for the revealed truths and doc- 
trines conducive to moral good and human excel- 
lence, and sincerely they pray, that, as long as 
in their thoughts and deeds God's word is their 
law, and that law their light, they may never be 
without his fatherly care. Again they rise ; amidst 
awe-inspiring solemnity, the "Reader" chants 
Israel's great creed: "Hear, O Israel, the Eternal, 
our God is One," to which the worshipers respond 
in one grand chorus: "Praised be the name of 
His glorious kingdom forever and aye." 

Silent, but fervent, devotion ensues. They 
express their deathless faith in the God of their 
fathers, in Him who sustains life, supports the 
falling, heals the sick, takes to himself the souls 
of the departed, crowns the week with the blessed 
Sabbath day, and they conclude praying that 
God may keep their tongues from evil, their lips 
from uttering deceit, and arm them with meekness 
against ill will, that he may impart humility in 
their soul and faith in their heart; that He may 
be their support when grief silences their voice 
and comfort them when woe bends their spirit, 
that truth may illuminate their path and wisdom 


be their guide; that He may frustrate every evil 
device and turn to goodness the hearts of those 
who devise them. 

The "Reader" breaks the silence by taking a 
goblet of wine, and with it, as the symbol of joy, 
he entunes the Kiddush, the consecration of the 
Sabbath as a day of rest and joy and spiritual 

The mourners and those who commemorate 
the anniversary of the death of some dear de- 
parted, rise now and recite the Kaddish, the 
"Mourner's Prayer," by which they utter even in 
their painful trials, their pious submission to God's 
will and to His superior wisdom. 

How sublime this mourner's service! How 
consoling to those who mourn and weep, to those 
who have mourned and wept, and how instructive 
to those who are destined to mourn and weep! 
It is as fraught with goodly lessons for those 
whom the hand of death has spared as for those 
who have been afflicted. It is more potent to 
move the heart than are the most fervent prayers, 
more eloquent than the most stirring discourses. 
Would you have your family life the sweetest, 
the purest, the most blessed, while it lasts, then 
go to the synagogue, hear the Mourner's Kaddish, 
and think how that heart must feel that has seen 
one of its links, neglected while living, go down 
into the lonely grave, there, where all the acts of 
charity and kindness, where the choicest of flowers 
and most expensive of monuments can cheer the 
silent sleeper no more. Would you have help to 
overcome jealousy and hatred, contempt and evil 


thoughts and evil deeds, go to the synagogue, 
hear the solemn "Kaddish," learn from it that 
there is a time when regret and repentance come 
too late to be heard, a time when sobbing and 
wailing can not pierce the clods. Would you 
moderate your ambitions and check your appe- 
tites, would you see the frailty of the mortal, would 
you keep your heartstrings vibrating in sympathy 
with suffering humanity, would you have a clear 
conception of the ends and aims of life, would you 
keep your conscience pure, then go to the syn- 
agogue, see the mourners rise, and from their 
sighs and tears learn the lesson that for the proud 
and the humble, the high and the low, the learned 
and the ignorant, the rich and the poor, the tyrant 
and the slave, the king and the servant there is 
but one common goal, death equalizes them all, 
his scythe knows no caste, no creed, no name, no 
fame, no title and no rank. 

But we have strayed from the living to the 
dead, from the joyous to the sorrowful. Let us 
return to the service. 

Again the congregation rises and solemnly they 
read the "Olenu," the concluding prayer, in which 
they express their fervent hope to behold soon 
the splendor of God's majesty, such as will call 
unbelief to vanish from the earth, will banish 
wickedness forever, will lead all mortals to recog- 
nize and worship the One and Only God. and 
bring on that glorious day when all men will live 
together in unity and brotherly peace, and the 
spirit of enlightenment will reign supreme over 


Another joyous Sabbath hymn and the services 
are concluded. 

In the vestibule, in the meantime, a number of 
strangers, showing by their appearance and cos- 
tume to belong to different countries and to dif- 
ferent stations of life, had gathered. They awaited 
there the conclusion of the services to be invited 
home for the Sabbath meal, for it is considered 
a sin in Israel if a brother in faith, be he rich or 
poor, friend or stranger, passes, or is permitted 
to pass, the joyous Sabbath Eve by himself, alone 
and forsaken, and it is regarded an act of piety to 
grace the festive board of the Sabbath meal with 
the presence of strangers. And so the company 
of these strangers is pressingly solicited, and the 
invitation is cheerfully accepted. Moses ben 
Chanoch, the Rabbi, and Jacob ben Eleasar, the 
special messenger, who had on that day returned 
from the Jewish kingdom of the Khozars, and we, 
who were cordially greeted after we were pre- 
sented by our friend Dunash ben Labrat, are the 
guests of the distinguished "Nasi." 

Through whatever streets we pass, the houses 
inhabited by Jews vie in their brightness with the 
brilliant illumination of the streets. A bright 
and cheery home on the Sabbath Eve is a law 
unto the Jew. "From the house that is cheerfully 
illuminated on the Sabbath great minds will issue" 
*spoke the Talmud, and it said still more: 
"When the Israelite leaves the synagogue for his 
home, on the Sabbath Eve, an Angel of Good 
and an Angel of Evil accompany him. If, upon 

Talmud Babli Sabbath 23b. 


entering his home, he finds the table spread, the 
Sabbath lamp lighted, and his wife and children 
attired in festive garments, ready to receive him. 
and in unison with him to bless the Holy Day of 
Rest, the Good Angel sweetly speaks: "Thy 
next Sabbath, and all the Sabbaths shall be as 
bright and as happy as this. Peace unto this 
dwelling forever," to which the Angel of Evil says 
a reluctant "Amen." But if no preparations have 
been made to greet the Sabbath, if light, and 
song, and thanksgiving do not cheer the inmates 
of the house, then the Angel of Evil exultingly 
speaks: May thy next Sabbath and all thy Sab- 
baths be as this. Gloom, misery, dissension, un- 
happiness unto this dwelling forever," to -which 
the Angel of Good, bathed in tears, stammers 
forth a reluctant "Amen." 

Upon entering the palatial residence, the very 
atmosphere breathes holiness and peace. Scarcely 
has Chasdai ben Isaac crossed his threshhold, 
when, in accordance with the established custom 
in Israel, in a joyous but sacred melody, in which 
his mother, and wife, and children join, they sing 
the salute to the Sabbath angels at the domestic 
hearth, repeating each verse three times. Thus 
it runs: 

"Peace unto you, ye angels of God, ye high 
messenger from the King of Kings, praised be 

"May your coming be in peace, ye angels of 
God, ye high messengers from the King of Kings, 
praised be He." 

* Talmud Babli Sabbath 119K 


"Bless us with peace, ye angels of God, ye high 
messengers from the King of Kings, praised be 

"Let your parting be in peace, ye angels of 
God, ye high messengers from the King of Kings, 
praised be He." 

Then fondly taking his mother by his right 
hand and his wife by his left, and leading them 
both lovingly to the center of the room beneath 
the radiant glow of the hallowed Sabbath lamp, 
he sings the last twenty-one verses of the last 
chapter of the Book of Proverbs, that noblest of 
all noble tributes to the virtuous woman, which 
reads as follows: "The heart of the husband of 
the virtuous woman doth safely trust in her, so 
that he shall not want for gain. She will do him 
good and not harm, all the days of her life. She 
seeketh wool, and flax, and workethwith diligent 
hands. She is like the merchant ships; she 
bringeth her food from afar. She riseth also 
while it is yet night, and giveth meat to her house- 
hold, and the day's work to her maidens. She 
considereth a field and buyeth it. With her fruit 
of her hands she planteth a vineyard. She girdeth 
her loins with strength and maketh strong her 
arms. She sees that her trading yields good 
profit; her lamp is kept burning by night. She 
layeth her hands on the spindle, and her hands 
hold the distaff. She stretcheth out her hands to 
the poor, yea, she reacheth out her hands to the 
needy. She is not afraid of the snow for her 
household, for all her children are clothed with 
scarlet wool. She maketh herself robes, her 


clothing is silk and purple. Her husband is 
known in the gates, when he sitteth among the 
elders of the land. She maketh fine linen and 
selleth it, and delivers girdles unto the merchants. 
Strength and honor are her clothing, and she 
smiles at days to come. She openeth her mouth 
with wisdom, and in her tongue is the law of 
kindness. She looketh well to the ordering of 
her household, and eateth not the bread of idle- 
ness. Her sons rise up and praise her, her hus- 
band also, and he extols her. Many daughters 
have done virtuously, but thou excelleth them all. 
Gracefulness is deceitful, and beauty is vain, but 
a woman that feareth the Lord, she shall be 
praised. Give her the honor that the fruits of her 
hands deserve; her works are the praise of all in 
the gates." 

The scene of that happy group, Chasdai, the 
learned and sagacious minister of the Moorish 
realm, facing his wife and mother, and encircled 
by his children, singing this glorious tribute to 
the virtuous women a weekly tribute that has 
done much toward establishing the beauty and 
grandeur of the Jewish family life the wife, 
whose beautiful form and features and grace 
express nobility of character and godliness within, 
as she lowers her black and musing eyes, as her 
bosom heaves with tender emotion, and her 
countenance is mantled with the scarlet hue of 
innocence at her husband's enumeration of her 
praises; the queenly mother, majestic and tall *as 
her son, and in her beauty a rival to his beautiful 
wife, as she holds her eye with speaking pride 


upon her distinguished son; that scene is for the 
artist's brush and for the sculptor's chisel. It is 
too beautiful, too pathetic, too sublime for the 
feeble tongue or pen. 

The children crowd to their father, and kissing 
them fondly, he lays his hands in blessing upon 
them. Verily, blessed is the head upon which 
parents' hands lie in blessing, and blessed are the 
parents' hands that lie in blessing upon a child's 
head. We know now whence to trace the cause 
of Chasdai's greatness and nobility of mind and 
excellence of character. That happy home life 
reveals to us the secret of his success. Here is 
the perennial fountain whence he quaffs daily the 
sweet draughts of moral goodness and human 
excellence. Here is that earthly paradise where 
kindness and good will, and peace, love, joy, 
reverence, mingle and produce continuous ecstatic 

We are presented to the ladies and a hearty 
welcome is written on their countenance. We 
are no stranger to them, for Dunash ben Labrat 
has kindly announced us in advance, and they 
are pleased with our presence, for they, too, are 
longing to hear of the entrance of the Jews into 
Europe, especially of the entrance into Spain. 
We are shown our places at the festive board. A 
servant pours water on our hands from a basin 
and ewer. Chasdai rises, and filling a g-oblet 
with wine, he repeats, in melodious strains, the 
"Kiddush," the ceremony we had already seen in 
the synagogue, the consecration of the Sabbath 
as a day of rest and joy and spiritual elevation 


within the sacred precints of the home. From 
beneath a beautifully embroidered cloth he takes 
the Sabbath loaf, recites the benediction, and 
breaking it, gives a piece thereof to every diner. 
And now the meal begins, spiced with excellent 
conversation, in which the women enter as lively 
as the men, and more than once their profound 
knowledge and brilliancy of mind and subtle wit 
exact from us expressions of admiration. The 
chief topic of the conversation is concerning the 
Jewish kingdom of the Khozars, from whom Jacob 
ben Eleazar had brought the anxiously-awaited 
news that morning. What we gather from this 
conversation is this: 

West of the Caspian Sea is a powerful kingdom, 
named "Khozar," before the strength of which 
the Persian monarchy trembles, and whose favor 
and alliance is courted by the Greek Empire. 
Its original inhabitants were a Turcoman tribe, 
who had gradually abandoned their nomadic habits 
and maintained considerable commerce. Their 
capitol, Bilangiar, is situated at the mouth of the 
Volga, and a line of cities stretches across from 
thence to the Don. Merchants of all religions, 
Christians, Mohammedans and Jews, were freely 
admitted, and their superior intelligence over his 
more barbarous subjects had induced one of their 
kings, Bulan (740 A. C.), to embrace the religion 
of the:: Jews. His choice between the conflicting 
claims of Christianity, Mohammedanism and 
Judaism was decided in this manner: He exam- 
ined the different teachers apart. He asked the 
'hristians if Judaism was not better than Moham- 


medanism. To which the Christians replied affir- 
matively. He asked the Mohammedan teachers 
if Judaism was not better than Christianity. To 
which they, too, replied in the affirmative. Both 
deciding- in favor of Judaism, the king embraced 
the faith of Moses, and induced learned Jewish 
teachers to settle in his domains. A belief in 
Judaism is the necessary condition on the acces- 
sion to the throne. The most liberal toleration 
of all other forms of faith prevails. But of this 
Jewish kingdom nothing was known in Spain till 
Chasdai learned of its existence through the 
ambassadors of the Byzantian emperor. Chasdai, 
to assure himself fully of the sovereignty pos- 
sessed by his brethren, had sent Jacob ben 
Eleazar as a messenger to them, with a letter to 
their king, which concluded thus: "Were I sure 
of the existence of this kingdom I would throw 
aside all my present honors and positions, and, 
hastening to it, would throw myself at the feet of 
a Jewish king and feast my heart and eyes at the 
sight of his might and splendor." That very day- 
had brought the eagerly looked-for letter from 
the present King of the Khozars, Chagan Joseph, 
giving the above information, and concluding 
thus: "I, too, am desirous of knowing thee and 
of profiting by thy wisdom. Could my desire be 
gratified, and could I speak to thee face to face, 
thou wouldst be to me as a father, and I thy son, 
and into thy hand would I intrust the government 
of my kingdom." 

The meal was finished and grace was said. 
Dunash ben Labrat, mindful of the promise he 



had made to Abdallah ben Xamri to bring him 
whenever Chasdai would relate to us the history 
of the entrance of the Jews into Spain, had come 
with his Moorish colleague, and they are an- 
nounced. Chasdai leads the way to the library, 
and we follow. 






When we were comfortably seated in the mag- 
nificent library of Chasdai ben Isaac, which was 
furnished luxuriantly, and with an eye to ease 
and comfort, and stocked with thousands of 
parchment folios, which stood row upon row. 
from floor to ceiling, in beautifully arched and 
decorated alcoves, along the walls of the spacious 
library hall, our host, Chasdai ben Isaac, began: 

"My friends, you asked for an account of 'The 
Entrance of the Jews into Europe.' The task you 
honor me with is not an easy one. Upon these 
shelves stand side by side the best that has been 
written upon History, Theology and Science, the 
classics, old and new, in their various tongues, 
both in prose and poetry, all that has been writ- 


ten for and against the religions of Mohammed- 
anism and Christianity and Judaism, and yet 
among these thousands of volumes you will search 
in vain for historic traces of the movements of the 
Hebrew people since their exile from their native 
soil. Nay, more, you may even look through 
the vast library of the Caliph, than which exists 
at present (950 A. C.) none greater upon the face 
of the earth, and still you will find naught upon 
this subject. You may consult the most renowned 
scholars of our age and meet with no better result. 

You marvel why so little is known of the 
History of the Jews during the period that extends 
from the Diaspore (70 A. C.) to the time of the 
conquests of the Arab-Moors of Spain, yet you 
will cease to marvel when you reflect upon the 
degradations, persecutions, cruelties, sufferings 
heaped upon them, when you remember that 
histories are never written of those who are con- 
sidered outcasts, pariahs, moral lepers, the 
accursed by God and man, and the so degraded 
and execrated, the so persecuted and so barbar- 
ously treated are not over-zealous to rejoice their 
scourgers by flaunting the history of their suffer- 
ing in their face. What I know of that period is 
little, and that little have I secured only after 
much labor and diligent research. 

Insatiable Rome, she who had made the world 
her slave, in whose realm the sun ne'er set, and 
who, to vaunt of so vast a power, had killed in 
cold blood, and for no offense at all, fully as 
many as she ever claimed among the living had 
stretched at last her cruel hand against Pales- 


tine, and the ''separate" and '"peculiar" and sacred 
land became a heathen heritage. Jerusalem, the. 
Holy City, lay in ruins. Smoking embers marked 
the site where stood the Temple of Temples, and 
the glory of Israel fell, and fell forever, and Israel 
ceased, and ceased forever, as a nation among the 
nations of the earth. 

Rome enacted a carnage within the holy city, 
the like of which her inhuman legions, with all 
their multitudinous and murderous experience, 
had never seen before. What the famine had 
left the sword consumed, and what escaped the 
sword fell a prey to the flames, and what remained, 
after streams of human blood had quenched the 
flames, dropped dead beneath the pestilence, and 
they, that had defied all these grim allies of cruel 
death, were driven into an open space, the tallest 
and most handsome were reserved to grace the 
triumphal march of Titus, to be dragged along 
the streets of Rome with a halter around their 
neck, and to be executed after the eyes and ears 
of the Romans had had their fill of the conquered's 
sufferings; of the rest, all above seventeen years 
of age were sold to distant countries, to the most 
cruel servitude, or they were distributed among 
the provinces to give sport to the people by their 
gladiatorial combats, fighting for their lives 
against hungry and ferocious beasts. 

One million one hundred and ten thousand 
Jews perished during this siege; ninety-seven 
thousand were driven in chains as slaves to dis- 
tant lands. The old and feeble, and the young 
and helpless who were spared, not from mercy, 


but because the Romans for once, weary of their 
slaughter, and sickened from the loathsome sight 
and insufferable stencil that arose from the heaps 
of unburied, putrid bodies, were forced to retreat. 
This pitiably remnant was compelled to take the 
staff of exile. 

Forth they went from their native soil to roam 
the wide world over. Everywhere homeless, 
friendless, despised, trodden down, hunted down 
by man and beast, tortured, an object of derision, 
a shadow of their former greatness. 

And when occasionally a ray of tolerance found 
its way to these outcast people,, and under the 
spell of its genial warmth the degraded dog was 
metamorphosed again into a human being, and 
the Jewish mind aw 7 oke again into life, and the 
Jew, strengthened and rejuvenated and encour- 
aged, dared to enter again into the arena of use- 
ful activity, that single ray was at once recalled 
by priests, who were more cunning and contriv- 
ing than humane and godly, for only upon the 
suffering of the mother-religion could the daughter- 
religion expect to exist. It was feared that the 
prosperity of Judaism w r ould prove the absurdity 
of Christianity's and Islam's claims and prophe- 
cies. If the Jews are permitted to prosper and 
flourish and follow their religion, and that religion 
is shown to be full of life and vigor, what reason 
for existence have the daughter- religions? Success 
and prosperity must accompany only that religion 
which the masses are to accept and follow, and 
for which superiority is claimed over the others. 
Such was their sophistical and self-interested 


reasoning, and so they afflicted and tortured the 
Jews, denied them every human right, and then 
kindly and magnanimously credited God with 
their own wickedness, claiming that God visited 
these punishments upon the Jews for-their rejec- 
tion of Christ or Mohammed. Hence, the unin- 
terrupted persecutions and sufferings of the Jews. 

But God had not withdrawn his guiding hand 
from His Chosen People. He had cast them 
down, but he forsook them not. Never before 
had they been so nigh unto extinction, and still 
they despaired not. With David they said: 'Yea, 
though I walk through the valley of the shadow 
of death, I fear no evil, for thou art with me; thy 
rod and thy staff shall comfort me.' * They lost 
not their faith in God and in their divine mission. 
They doubted not that there was a meaning to 
their sudden change of fortune. They believed 
that as each seed when sown must endure dark- 
ness and suffer decay before it can multiply its 
kind a hundredfold, so had God scattered the 
children of Israel as seeds among the nations of 
the earth, and subjected them to threats and suf- 
ferings that the number of true believers might 
increase a thousandtold. They regarded it a 
special distinction to be chosen by God to spread 
monotheism and civilization among the children 
of men.f 

"This strong faith in the superior wisdom of 
God's doing was the elixir that preserved them 
during their indescribable sufferings. This it was 
that established unconsciously a bond of union 

* Ps. xxiii. 4. f Talmud Babli, Pessachim 87 b. 


among them, scattered though they were, and 
whithersoever they went, however near to or 
however far from the land where once stood the 
cradle of their nation, their temple and palaces, 
where ruled and sang and spoke their princes and 
bards and inspired orators of deathless fame, 
however removed from this dearly beloved center, 
one past and one future, one hope and one aim, 
characterized them all and planted within them 
the seeds of indestructibility. 

What wonder then that soon after this ter 
rible national calamity, a disaster from which no 
other people on the face of the earth could have 
possibly survived, we hear of large Jewish com- 
munities in Asia, Africa and Europe ? Some of 
these were established even before the dissolu- 
tion of the Jewish kingdom. At the time of 
Titus numerous Jewish communities existed in 
the countries bordering on the Euphrates and the 
Tigris, in Asia Minor on the north coast of Africa, 
in Greece and in Italy. The Jewish community 
in Rome was large and influential long before the 
reign of Titus, having been brought thither as 
slaves by Pompey, after his conquest of Jerusalem. 
After the terrible siege of Jerusalem, crowds of 
exiles wandered to them and swelled their num- 
ber, and these destitute exiles must have dimin- 
ished the community's opulence and respectabil- 
ity and popularity, for before the Dias'pore 
Latin authors speak of them as a wealthy and re- 
spected community ; after this period, the notices 
of them by Juvenal and Martial are contemptu- 
ous, and imply that many of them were in the 
lowest state of penury, the outcasts of society. . 


Whatever city in Asia Minor and Greece the 
Apostle Paul enters he seems to find a synagogue. 
In some of these cities the Jews seem to have 
flourished ; in most of them, however, they were 
proscribed as an odious people, and were objects 
of hatred and abhorrence. The rule seemed to 
be, in localities were Christianity predomina- 
ted the Jews suffered ; where the Heathens were 
in power the Jewish communities flourished. 

In Italy they were permitted, with few excep- 
tions, to live in peace. Even though Thcodcric 
wrote : " Why should we give them peace in this 
life, when God will not give them peace in the 
life to come ? " and even though Cassivdorus 
piously bestowed upon them the flattering appel- 
lations of "scorpions, wild asses, dogs, "etc., it never 
came to very serious persecutions, and the valiant 
defense of Naples by the Jews against the great 
Belisarius, for which History gives them 
their deserved credit, clearly shows how the Jew 
can be patriotic for his adopted fatherland. 

Concerning the Jews in Western Europe, we 
have no knowledge before the second century. 
When the Franks and Burgundians conquered 
the Roman colonies in Gaul, the Jews, who had 
been brought thither as slaves, were classed by 
the victors, as Romans, and shared equal fate with 
them. They were permitted to follow agricultur- 
al pursuits and trades. Their own ships furrow- 
ed the ocean. Jewish physicians were sought by 
the princes of the Church and of the Realm. As 
soldiers they distinguished themselves in the war- 
fare between Clovis and Theoderic. Their reli- 


gious practices were not interfered with, the Jew 
was everywhere respected by the heathen. 

But the sun of their prosperity was extinguish- 
ed when the heathen kings adopted Christianity. 
With the change of their religion came a change 
of heart ; the heart that was formerly full of love 
toward the Jew, turned into stone. The clergy 
dictated, and the kings and the people obeyed 
with the sword, and the Jews bled and suffered 
and perished by the thousands, or were dragged 
under tortures to baptism into the alone-saving 
and all-loving church. 


So much for the early history of the Jews in 
France. We now come to the history of the 
Jews in Spain. That theme is vast. It demands 
a chapter for itself. 












The week had passed. It was Sabbath Eve 
once more. Again we assembled in the library 
hall of Chasdai ben Isaac to listen to the narrative 
of "The Entrance of the Jews into Spain." 
When all were gathered Chasdai began and 
spoke as follows : History is more communica- 
tive about the entrance of the Jews into Spain 
than she is about their entrance into any of the 
other West European countries. The Bible gives 
us sufficient basis to build upon the fairly reliable 
theory that as early as the time of King Solomon 
(1,000 B. C.) the Iberian peninsula was known 
to the Israelites, that considerable traffic was 
carried on between them and the autochtones of 


the Southwestern corner of Europe, and that a 
settlement of a Jewish colony within the sunny 
lands of Andalusia may have taken place then. 
We have a tradition which tells us, that when in 
the early days of the Christian era the Jews of 
Spain were attacked for having crucified Jesus, 
they claimed that neither they nor their fathers 
had any share in the crucifixion, that they were 
the descendants of Jews who lived in Spain long 
before the time of Christ, and produced a grave- 
stone upon which was inscribed : "This is the 
grave of Adonirams, the servant of Solomon the 
king, who came hither to collect the tribute for 
the king." 

We know that when the Romans became com- 
plete masters of Spain in the second century B. 
C. they found a considerable number of Israelites 
domiciled there. About 60 A. C. the Jewish 
community of Spain must have been strong and 
influential enough to make the coming of the 
Apostle Paul among them necessary.* 

Crowds of exiles wandered westward and 
swelled their number after the terrible siege 
of Jerusalem by Titus, and in addition 80,000 
slaves are said to have been transferred thither 
and sold as slaves and speedily ransomed by their 
more fortunate brethren. Historic sources are 
agreed that these Jewish inhabitants of Spain by 
their passionate fondness for agricultural pursuits, 
a passion which they had brought along from the 
Holy Land, soon made Andalusia the garden 
spot of Europe, and by their industry, frugality, 
skill in traffic and intellectual powers, they became 

* Remans xv:28. 


the pillars of the country's prosperity and acquired 
great wealth and distinction. 

It could not have been otherwise. In habits, 
aims and ambitions there was an organic differ- 


ence between the Jews and their warlike fellow 
citizens. The Romans, as well as the Visigoths, 
were wedded to military life. Every other call- 
ing or pursuit was degrading in their eyes. Trad- 
ing or tilling the soil was in their eyes only befit- 
ting the slave. The uncertainty of their future, 
their roaming life, their habit of living from plun- 
der, developed in them traits that were just the 
opposite to those of the Jews. The Jew hated 
war. His love for home was intense. His in- 
dustry and frugality, his religious life and his love 
of study, were proverbial, and so in proportion as 
the others increased in brutality and ignorance, in 
poverty and moral corruption, the Jews reached 
the heights of prosperity, morality and intellect. 

That prosperity, however, proved to be their 
curse. It is a mistake to believe that the great- 
est crime of the Jews was their faith ; it was their 
prosperity. Idlers and spendthrifts have never 
yet been thrilled with ecstatic delight at another's 
prosperity, and never is their venom more poison- 
ous and their wrath more bitter than when the 
Jew is unfortunate enough to be fortunate. In 
Spain, as elsewhere, a mighty power of soldiers, 
and monks, and priests, and dependants, all un- 
productive laborers, stood arrayed against the 
handful of Jews, the only productive laborers of 
the realm, and the battle cry was not the Jews' 
money, but the Jews' "soul." There was great 


diplomacy in this battle cry. They knew of the 
intensity of the Jew's faith in his religion. They 
knew how he was wedded to the traditions and 
hopes of his race. They knew that he would 
cheerfully part with all his treasures rather than 
sacrifice an iota of his belief. They knew that 
the industrial, and economical, and intellectual, 
and peace-and home-loving- traits of the Jew were 
so deeply rooted, that he would at once begin 
anew to acquire again, perhaps for the same end, 
all that had been cruelly torn from him, just as 
the bees, nothing daunted by the theft of their 
painfully hoarded wealth, will start anew to fill the 
hive. And so, whenever they had need of the 
money of the Jews, and that need was, alas, a 
frequent one, they became all at once painfully 
concerned about the Jewish soul, and its final fate, 
and they never failed to relieve the Jews of their 
treasures, even if they failed in the saving of their 

Spain took the lead in Jewish persecutions and 
maintained its odious distinction for centuries. 
Henceforth there is no lack of historic material 
concerning the Jews in Spain. But, alas ! until 
the time oi the conquest of Spain by the Moors, 
it is nota history of achievement, it is a history of 
suffering a martyrology. That martyrology" 
began with the Third Council of Toledo (589 A. C.) 
at which Recaredo presented his abjuration of 
Arianism and was anointed as the first Catholic 
monarch of Spain. At that council laws were 
passed, of which the spirit may be comprehended 
from the following preamble and titles : 


"Laws concerning the promulgation and rati- 
fication of statutes against Jewish wickedness, and 
for the general extirpation of Jewish errors. 
That the Jews may not celebrate the Passover 
according to their usage ; that the Jews may not 
contract marriage according to their own customs; 
that the Jews may not practice the Abrahamitic 
rite ;.that the Jews bring no actions against Chris- 
tians ; that the Jews be not permitted to bear wit- 
ness against Christians." 

The Jews knew what was wanted ; they paid 
a large sum of money, and the laws remained in- 
operative till Recaredo's successor, Sisebuto, as- 
cended the throne. This king entered into a 
league with Emperor Heraclius, with the pious 
determination of " extirpating the dangerous race 
throughout the world," and so he issued a law 
which gave the Jews a year's time to de- 
cide whether they would confess Christ and be 
baptized, or be shaved and scourged, their pro- 
perty confiscated, and themselves forced to leave 
the country.* 

Ninety thousand are said to have submitted to 
baptism, but with them the enforced Christian 
rite was but a mask for their secret Jewish belief 
and practices. And they had ample cause for re- 
gretting their religious weakness, for baptism did 
not secure them from new indignities and humilia- 
tion. They were despised for their apostacy, and 
their property was taken from them as if they 

*"Confessar la region cristian y bantizarse, oser decalvados, azotaclos, 
lanzados del reino y conficados sus bicnes." Codex .Visigothorum xii., 
t:t. iii. 


had not complied with the king's edict. Thou- 
sands upon thousands fled to the northern coasts 
of Africa, and with them fled the prosperity from 
the Gothic kingdom. 

Having once discovered so excellent a source 
for satisfying their greed for money, they had no 
intention of letting such golden opportunities 
escape them. A few years had passed, and the 
baptized Jews, true to their industrial and 
economical habits, had hoarded up some wealth 
with which they might buy life from the infuriat- 
ed mob, and so the Fourth Council met at Toledo, 
in the year 633, and enacted the cruel require- 
ment that the children of those, who had accept- 
ed Christianity, should be torn, forever, from their 
parent's heart, to be educated by Christians in the 
Christian faith. The Sixth Council enacted a law, 
that every king on his accession shall take an 
oath, that he will execute all the laws against the 
Jews, and will issue others equally as severe. 
Another law enacted the punishment of death 
upon Christians, who should embrace Judaism, or 
commit "the monstrous and unutterable crime of 
pursuing an execrable commerce with the un- 
godly." The Ninth Cojncil decreed, that all 
baptized Jews were bound to appear in the church, 
not only on Christian, but also on Jewish holi- 
days, lest, while they outwardly profess Christ- 
ianity, they should practice secretly Judaism. 

The Twelfth Council, of Toledo, 68 1, far sur- 
passed its predecessors in the cruelties of its enact- 
ments. The preamble complained that "the craf- 
ty Jews had eluded all former laws," and then 


decreed that hereafter 100 lashes would be inflict- 
ed upon the naked body, and after that, the of- 
fender would be put in chains, banished, and his 
property confiscated for any of the following of- 
fences : For rejecting- the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper, for not bringing children or serv- 
ants or dependants to baptism, for observing the 
Passover, the New Moon, the Feast of Taber- 
nacles, for violating the Christian Sabbath, or the 
great festivals of the church. The circumcision 
of a child brought additional tortures, upon the 
father mutilation, upon the mother the loss of 
her nose. No marriage was hereafter to be con- 
tracted, without solemn obligation that both would 
become Christians. All subjects of the kingdom 
who harbored, assisted or concealed the flight of a 
Jew, were to be scourged, and have their prop- 
erty confiscated. The Jew who read or allow- 
ed his children to read books written against 
Christianity was to suffer 100 lashes ; on the 
second offense the lashes were to be repeated, 
with banishment and confiscation. No Jew was 
to hold any office by which he might have authori- 
ty over Christians. 

I shall spare you a recital of the numerous 
other cruel laws enacted, and the account of 
the terrible sufferings endured. The land re- 
echoed the piteous groans and lamentations of 
the lashed and scourged. Their wealth pur- 
chased but temporary immunity and exemption. 

"Certainly the heroism of the defenders of every 
other creed fades into insignificance before this 
martyr people, who confronted all the evils that 


the fiercest fanaticism could devise, enduring 
obloquy and spoliation and the violation 
of the dearest ties, and the infliction of the most 
hideous sufferings, rather than abandon their faith. 
For these were no ascetic monks, dead to all the 
hopes and passions of life, but were men who 
appreciated intensely the worldly advantages they 
relinqished, and whose affections had become all 
the more lively on account of the narrow circle in 
which they were confined. Enthusiasm and the 
strange phenomena of ecstasy, which have ex- 
ercised so large an influence in the history of 
persecution, which have nerved so many martyrs 
with superhuman courage, and have deadened or 
destroyed the anguish of so many fearful tortures, 
were here almost unknown. Persecution came to 
the Jewish nation in its most horrible forms, yet 
surrounded by every circumstance of petty an- 
noyance that could destroy its grandeur, and it 
continued for centuries their abiding portion. 
But above all this the genius of that wonderful 
people rose supreme. While those around them 
were grovelling in the darkness of besotted ignor- 
ance ; while juggling miracles and lying relics 
were the themes on w r hich almost all Europe was 
expatiating ; while the intellect of Christendom, 
enthralled by countless superstitions, had sunk 
into a deadly torpor, in which all love of enquiry 
and all search for truth were abandoned, the Jews 
were still pursuing the path of knowelege, amass- 
ing learning, and stimulating progress with the 
same unflinching constancy that they manifested 
in their faith."* 

*Lecky's Rationialism in Europe, (pages 270-271) vol. 2, chap. 6, and 


The enemy succeeded in impoverishing' the 
Jew, and in stifling his energies and efforts for 
the good of the country, but failed ignominiously 
in their effort to inspire him with a love for 
Christianity, which perhaps was never sincerely 
wanted, and, if wanted, the means chosen to 
secure the end were not such that are crowned 
with success. The degraded and tortured Jew 
was filled with a bitter hatred against Christianity, 
and with a burning longing for revenge. 

And vengeance came. God had heard the wail- 
ings and seen the sufferings of the people that 
never was born to die. The Gothic kingdom of 
Spain was to suffer bitterly for its terrible crimes 
and the Jew was to be rewarded a thousand- 
fold for the sufferings he had endured for his 
religion's sake. Weaker and weaker became 
that kingdom which the Jews had made in form- 
er years the pride of Europe. It was beset by 
foes within and by foes without. The tyranny of 
the church and of the throne had instigated dissa- 
tisfaction among the grandees of the state, and 
the insult of Roderick, the king, to Florinda, the 
young and beautiful daughter of Count Ilyan 
aroused this bravest of Spanish warriors and 

also the following from Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella (p. 192), vol. 1: 
"Under the /isigothic empire the Jews multiplied exceedingly in the 
country, and ware permitted to acquire considerable power and wealth. 
But no sooner had their Arian masters embraced the orthodox faith, 
than they began to testify their zeal by pouring on the Jews the most 
pitiless storm of persecution. One of their laws alone condemned the 
whole race to slavery : and Montesquieu remarks, without much exaggera- 
tion, that to the Gothic code may be traced all the maxims of the modern 
Inquisition, the monks of the fifteenth century only copying, in reference 
to the Israelites, the bishops of the seventh." 


numerous powerful friends of his into open re- 

Nearer and nearer drew the Arab- Moors. 
They reached the Northwestern point of Africa, 
where the Jews, who had fled and who had been 
banished thither, and who had risen there 
to power and influence, greeted them with a 
hearty welcome. The martial sound of the Moslem 
hosts made as pleasant music to their ears as to 
the insulted father and his wrath- inspired follow- 
ers. Both parties conspired with the Moorish 
chief, Amir Musa Ibn Nosseyr, for the invasion 
of Spain. Musa grasped eagerly at this ardently 
wished-for opportunity. He dispatched his valiant 
warrior Tarik,with 12,000 men across the narrow 
strait that separated Africa from Europe, and 
Islam from Christianity. Roderik met him at the 
banks of the Guadalete with an army eight times 
as large, and that day was the last Spain beheld 
him and his army. On that day Christianity 
ceased to rule within the land of Spain, and as its 
power sank, there dawned once more the sun of 
prosperity unto Israel. 

The Moors did not torget the valuable services 
of the Jews. The early hatred against them in 
Arabia, for refusing to accept the creed of 
Mohammed, had long since been converted into 
tolerance and good will. Unlike the religion of 
Christianity, which started as the religion of love 
and soon became the religion of the sword, 
Islamism began as the religion of the sword but 
soon become the religion of love. Political and 
religious freedom and social recognition was 


granted to the Jew throughout the caliphate, and 
from that day unto this the two Oriental people 
have lived in peace side by side upon the Occi- 
dental soil, vieing with each other in their 
noble eftorts to restore unto Spain her original 
beauty and prosperity, and to make her in culture 
and art and intelligence the mistress of Europe. 
We, sons of Israel, have labored hard and zeal- 
ously in this noble contest, but with all our eftorts 
our rival has passed beyond us, and humbly we 
cede the palm of victory to the Arab-Moors." 

Here Chasdai ben Isaac ceased. He had 
spoken of the sufferings of the Jews with such 
perceptible anguish, he had related the part which 
the Jews took in the conquest of Spain with such 
vivid animation, and referred to the prosperity of 
the Jews under Moorish sway, and to Moorish 
tolerance and intellectual greatness, with such 
touching pathos that when he paused, a deep im- 
pressive silence ensued. At length Abdallah ben 
Xamri, the Moorish poet laureate to Caliph 
Abder Rahman III., arose, advanced towards 
Chasdai, and bowing low, thus he spoke: 

"Your modesty must not bridle my tongue. I 
would appear an ingrate to my people should it be- 
come known that I listened in silence to your last 
remarks. The Arab- Moors forgot not their 
benefactors, nor are they so boastful as to arro- 
gate to themselves, or allow others to bestow 
upon them a superiority which is unmerited. 

Within our heart of hearts we treasure the 
services which your people have rendered. 
We owe the Hebrew people much more than 


your modesty, noble Chasdai, has suffered you to 
claim. You opened the portals of Spain unto 
us, and to you alone belongs the credit of turning 
Spain once again into a paradise, for a hundred 
years of uninterrupted warfare under the banner 
of Islam, had unfitted us for agricultural and 
mechanical and intellectual and artistic pursuits. 
You so\ved the seeds of our prosperity. We sat 
at the feet of your masters, and if we have proven 
ourselves apt scholars, we bear testimony to the 
excellency of your teachers. Far be it from us 
to claim superiority over our honored rival. In 
the arts and sciences and philosophies your peo- 
ple hold distinguished places. Your theologians 
have given us many a problem which the wisest 
among us have failed to solve. In the purity of 
your home and social life, and in your industries 
you serve the world as models. In poetry I 
should never venture to compete for supremacy 
with friend Dunash ben Labratand Menachem ben 
Saruk. In diplomacy, where lives the man who 
can equal you in intellect and sagacity, to 
whom else do we owe our political greatness 
than to you, Chasdai ben Isaac, the Jewish 
minister of our beloved Caliph Abder Rahman 





We have witnessed the rise of Islam. We ac- 
companied the Arab on his march of conquest. 
Breathlessly we stood upon the banks of the 
Guadalete and awaited the issue of a battle upon 
which the destiny of nations depended. We 
followed the trimuphal processions ot the Arab- 
Moors into Spain, and our eyes and hearts never 
ceased rejoicing over the manifold beauties and 
wonders which Moorish skill spread o'er fair 
Andalusia, and our tongues ne'er tired speaking 
of the manifold blessings which Moorish social 
and domestic and political life and religious toler- 
ance showered lavishly not only upon their own 
generation, but upon all the generations that have 
been ever since. 


And there was another picture, not so beauti- 
ful, but far more instructive; not so cheering, but 
fuller of pathos. Tearfully we witnessed the siege 
of Jerusalem and its unparalleled massacre. Heart- 
broken we followed the despised and spurned 
and abused, the friendless and homeless Jew, 
in his vain efforts to find a spot where he might 
rest his weary head in peace. Our hearts leaped 
for joy when we beheld the followers of Moham- 
med not the followers of the founder of the reli- 
gion of love not only restore to the Jew human 
rights unjustly torn from him, but also offer him 
the hand of brotherhood. When we parted last 
we left the Jew and Moor busily engaged in 
making fair Andalusia, in culture and art and in- 
telligence, the mistress of the world. Then all 
was peace and joy and sunshine. 

We have returned. Five centuries have pass- 
ed since our last visit. We are now at the end 
of the fifteenth century. A mighty change has 
taken place. Peace has turned to war, joy to 
sorrow, sunshine to darkness. Culture wears the 
crown of thorns. Art is dragged through the 
mire. Science is fettered hand and foot. Reli- 
gious liberty sends forth piteous shrieks from the 
flames and smoke of the auto-da-ie. Enlighten- 
ed Europe weeps and trembles. We ask Mercy: 
"Why weepest thou?" And she sobs forth the 
name: "Cardinal Ximenes." We ask Art the 
same question, and she stammers forth: "The 
Church." Science answers: "The Inquisition." 
Religious Liberty utters between its death throes 
the name: "Torquemada." Enlightened Europe 


weeps and trembles, because the vast storehouses 
of learning, which Moorish and Jewish intelligence 
had built up, are about to be consigned to the 
flames, and the builders themselves are to be ex- 
tirpated from the soil, upon which they have lived 
nigh unto eight centuries, and which their own 
diligent toil has made the wonder of Europe. 

"Haste ye," the Spirit of knowledge calleth unto 
us, "the furnaces are heated, the death-pyres are 
awaiting impatiently their martyrs, the ships are 
ready in the harbor to carry off, and give abund- 
ance of water to all such who refused the few 
drops of the water of salvation, the massive gates 
of the Inquisition dungeons are open, and the in- 
struments of torture are eager for their cruel and 
inhuman work of death. Haste ye, the moments 
are precious, gather the knowledge for which you 
have come, as speedily as you can; tarry, and not 
a trace nor a record will remain of this most won- 
drous and fruitful era of Europe's intellectual ad- 

Let us heed the warning, and hasten to our 
task. We had come prepared for a detailed ac- 
count, but now we must content ourselves with a 
mere synoptical sketch of the progress made by 
the Arabs and Jews in literature, art, philosophy 
and in the mathematical and physical and ap- 
plied sciences, during the same era when the rest 
of Europe was yet lying in comparative darkness 
and barbarism. 

A feeling of awe comes over us as we approach 
our task. We cannot but feel that in dealing 
with the Arab and Jew in Europe, the period that 


extends from the beginning of the eighth to the 
end of the fifteenth century, we are dealing with 
a divine agency, sent into Europe to rekindle and 
keep alive the sacred fire of intelligence, which, 
prior to their coming, had been extinguished by 
the church and by barbarian conquerors. At 
this era they are the sole depositories of learning. 
The second and third chapters of this narrative 
have acquainted us with the terrible stifling mist 
of ignorance and its concomitants, fanaticism and 
cruelty and corruption and intense suffering, 
which hovered over Europe at the time when the 
people of the Orient had entered it, and began 
their intellectual unfolding. 

In the East those centers of learning that had 
not yet passed away were rapidly declining. An- 
tioch, Alexandria, Bagdad, Damascus, Jerusalem, 
these cities which in their day had made the light 
of the East more luminous with their light, had 
drawn in their rays and sent them forth no more. 
But the Jew and Arab had wandered into Europe 
before this intellectual decline, and there they 
fanned the spark of knowledge they had brought 
with them into such a brilliant and active life, that 
its light still illumines our mind, and its genial 
warmth still cheers our heart. The Jew and the 
Moor have made Europe their everlasting debtor 
for their services in bridging the yawning chasm 
which separates ancient from modern culture. 
With them, most of that ancient knowledge, 
for which mankind had toiled diligently and un- 
tiringly for thousands of years, would have been 
lost, and lost forever, and modern knowledge, 


would have been compelled to begin again at the 
very alphabet, and we to-day might have been 
some 2,000 or 3,000 years behind. Without their 
untiring eftorts to disperse the poisonous mists, 
and force their light upon the people, even at the 
expense of much suffering, the darkest, and most 
slothful period of European annals which was 
co-eval with the highest Jewish and Moorish intel- 
ligence before that intelligence made itself felt in 
Europe, might have still surrounded us to-day. 

But this is not the time for reflection nor lauda- 
tion. Hark! Already the doeful knell is tolling, 
and the people are thronging the public square, 
and the clergy are chanting hymns of victory and 
imprecatory formula, and the autos-da-fe ax?, piled 
up high and dry, and the condemned are im- 
patient, for they long for death, they pray to be 
released, at last, from the insufferable tortures of 
the Inquisition, and so we must hasten to our task 
of recording upon History's pages the wonderful 
strides the Jews and Moors did make in science 
and literature and philosophy, before flame and 
sword and rack and expulsion, silence their voice 
and obliterate their works forever. 

We shall consider their intellectual labors in the 
order of their importance and service to human- 
kind, and for that reason we shall begin with a 
hasty review of their progress in medical science. 
In this branch thejewwas without peer. He excelled 
the Moor, because the restrictions which Ismalism 
imposed upon the follower of the Koran, such as 
prohibitions against dissecting man or animal, did 
not trammel him. And he eclipsed the Chris- 


tian, for the Church held medical science accursed, 
branded and condemned the physician as an atheist, 
and zealously propagated the doctrines-that cures 
must be wrought by relics of martyrs and bones 
of saints; by prayer and intercession; that each 
region of the body was under special spiritual 
charge, the first joint of the right thumb being in 
care of God the father, the second under that of 
the blessed Virgin, and so on to the other parts. 
For each disease there was a saint. A man with 
sore eyes must invoke St. Clara. St. Anthony is 
a sure cure for other inflammations, St. Pernel 
delivers from ague. In all cases, cured or not, 
the clergy constituted themselves as the self-ap- 
pointed agents for collecting the fees for the 
saints, and as long as this spiritual method of 
curring disease formed one of their most produc- 
tive sources of gain, they took great care that 
no other mode of treatment should excel theirs. 
Hence their attitude against physicians, and their 
frequent council decrees, making it a crime punish- 
able with death for a Jewish physician to attend 
a Christain patient, and for a Christain patient to 
seek recourse to a Jewish physician, instead of to 
the shrines and altars of the saints.* But for all 
that, Jewish physicians, and Jewish medical 
schools flourished, and found their prohibited 
profession very profitable among the Christians, 
especially among kings, and popes, and princes, 
and bishops, among the very men, who passed 
the sentence of death for crimes which they were 
the first to perpetrate. 

*Council of Beziers, 1246 A. C.; Council of Alhy, 12-54; Faculty of 
Paris, 1301. 


In the tenth and eleventh and twelfth centuries, 
nearly all the physicians in Europe were Jews. 
Later, the Moors joined them, but only for a 
short time, and then ^he Jews again became the 
sole champions of medical science. There was 
not a man of power or prominence who had not 
his own Jewish body physician, and these body 
physicians constituted a power, for besides hold- 
ing the lives of potentates in their hand, they 
combined with their professional skill, all the 
learning of the age, a profound knowledge of 
theology, mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, 
music, law, statesmanship, poetry lexicography, 
criticism, and of other branches. 

In naminof them and their schools and their 


works we must give honorable mention to the 
Jewish physicians of France. Out of the Spanish 
peninsula there had came across the Pyrenees an 
intellectual influence which found a warm recep- 
tion by the Jews of France. To verify this, of 
schools, we need but name the famous medical 
school at Narbonne under the presidency of 
Rabbi Abbu, and the flourishing school at Aries, 
and the most famous of them all, the college of 
Montpellier, with the great Profatius as regent of 
the faculty, as distinguished in medicine as he 
was eminent in astronomy ; and of the distin- 
guished Jewish physician of France, we need but 
name Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac, (1040-1105) 
better known under the abbreviation: "Rashi," 
the greatest French physician of the eleventh 
century, unrivaled in his age for his instructions 
in great surgical operations, as the Csesarean 


tion ; nor must we forget the learned Ibn Tibbon, 
(1160-1230) who emphasized the necessity of a 
close study of botany for medical purposes, and 
of carefully cultivating the art of preparing drugs. 

The scope of this discourse will not permit 
us to name all of the distinguished Jewish physi- 
cians of Spain, nor to enumerate their works 
nor to dwell upon their merits. From the many 
we shall select the name of Ibn Ezra, (1093*1 107) 
the polyhistor of his age. His chief work 
is a treatise on practical and theoretical medicine, 
entitled, " Book of Proofs." 

But greater than Ibn Ezra, both as a physician 
and a philosopher, is Moses Maimonides, (1135- 
i 204), honored by his countrymen with the titles : 
"The Doctor," "The Great Sage," "The Glory 
of the West," "The Light of the East, Second 
Only to Moses." He was the most famous of all 
living physicians of his time. He was coveted 
as body physician by the greatest potentates, and 
the justly celebrated Sultan Saladin considered 
himself honored and fortunate to secure him as 
his body physician. When Richard Cceur de 
Lion, King of England, fell sick, Moses Maimon- 
ides was summoned for consultation. His con- 
tributions to medical works are many. He wrote 
medical aphorisms derived from former Greek, 
Latin, Hebrew and Arabic sources ; an abridg- 
ment of Galen, a treatise on " Hemorrhoids," on 
"Poisons and Antidotes," on "Asthma, "on "The 
Preservation of Health," on "The Bites of Ven- 
omous Anima-ls," and other valuable works. '"' 

*For details see, Graetz's Geschichte der Juden," volume 5 and (i : 


We return to the Moors, and here, too. we are 
confronted by an abundance of medical literature. 
Over 300 distinguished medical writers are 
mentioned, and their works are voluminous. 
Chief among them stands Avenzora, Ibn Zohr, 
(beginning of the Twelfth century) physician, to 
the court of Seville. His famous work "Canon 
of Medicine," an encyclopaedia of medical know- 
ledge,,established for him a world wide reputa- 
tion and became the medical authority for Euro- 
pean universities for many centuries. Upwards 
of 100 other medical treaties are ascribed to him, 
some are tracts of a few pages, others are works 
extending through several volumes. Avicenna 
(Ibn Sina, 980-1037) occupies an honored place 
next to him. Chief among his works is his 
"Method of Preparing Medicine and Diet," 
"Treatment of Leprosy," and two works on 
"Fever," in which he continues the work begun a 
century before by the Jewish physician, Isaac ben 
Suleiman Israeli. The Moors themselves ac- 
knowledge that the Jews far surpass them in their 
knowledge of anatomy, physiology and hygiene, 
that from want of knowledge of the construction 
of the human body, their surgery is necessarily 
crude. Their great fame, however, rests, and 
will rest, upon their introduction of pharmacy, 
their therapeutical use of drugs, their making 
chemistry, the handmaid of medical treatment. 
Pharmacopoeia dates from this period. The 

Jost's " Geschichte cles Judenthums," volume 2 and 3, chapters xxiv- 
xxvii ; Drapers' Intellectual Development of Europe, volume 2, chapter 


Moors of Spain, opened the first apothecary 
shops, and many of the names and many of the 
medicines still used, have come down to us from 
their period.* We must content ourselves with 
this brief review (more the scope of this work will 
not permit,) of "The Position of the Jew and the 
Moor in Medical Science." 

*For full information consult " History of Medicine," by J. F. Payne; 
"Geschichte der Arabischen Aertste und Naturforcher," by Wustenfeld. 






We turn next in our review of the intellectual 
labors of the Moors and Jews in Spain, during 
the period that extends from the beginning- of 
the eighth to the end of the fifteenth century, to 
an examination of their position in the sciences. 
The deplorably benighted state of contempo- 
raneous Europe prepares us to expect little or 
nothing in this noblest department of human 
knowledge, and our surprise is therefore so much 
the greater as we gaze upon, and ponder over, 
the mighty strides made by the Moors and by the 
Jews on the highways of science. The impetus 
in this special branch seemed to have ccme from 
the Arabs. The few words of Ali, the fourth 
Arabian caliph: "Eminence in science is the 


highest honor; he dies not who gives life to learn- 
ing," seems to have taken as deep roots within 
the minds of the Arabians, and to have yielded 
far more precious fruits, than did the Koran the 
vast volume of his distinguished father-in-law ; 

For centuries the Arab-Moors led the world in 
this department. Here the Jews cannot lay claim 
to rivalry ; they were collaborators, but nothing 
more. In justice to the Jews, however, we shall 
add, that there are some who differ from us in 
our conclusion. Some give to the Jews an equal 
rank with the Moors, others claim that the point 
under discussion is still debatable. And we must 
not treat their objection lightly. We must not 
forget that in treating of these scientists of Spain, 
we are dealing with men known under Arabic 
names ; beyond a knowledge of their scientific 
works we know little or nothing about them. 
Concerning their religion, history maintains a 
commendable silence; the Mohammedans pre- 
ferring, at this period,' the ink of science to 
the blood of martyrs. Knowing of the scientific 
scholars nothing more than that their works 
are written in Arabic, and that their names 
\rabic, the canons of criticism will not per- 
mit us to conclude that a scientist who writes 
in Arabic, and whose name is Arabic, is neces- 
sarily also a Mohammedan by faith. The records 
give incontestable proof that many and many of 
the distinguished Jewish scholars of that period 
wrote in Arabic, and went under an Arabic name, 
who, but for a chance article of work from their 


pen upon a Hebrew subject, might have been 
classed to-day as Arab-Moors by race and 
Mohammedan by creed. Be this as it may. 
That point will never be definitely settled, and as 
long as a doubt remains, the Arab-Moors may 
justly claim the benefit of the doubt, and the Jews 
shall be the last to contest their claims of super- 
iority in the sciences during the Middle Ages 
over every other race or creed. 

Entering upon our subject, and beginning at 
f the root of the tree of science, we make the pleas- 
ing discovery that to the Arab- Moors of Spain 
belongs the honor of having been the first to 
generally introduce in Europe, for scientific and 
ll industrial and commercial purposes, the science 
V pf arithmetic. Had they achieved nothing else, 
the introduction of this most needful of all the 
branches of mathematics alone, would have en- 
titled them to a distinguised place among the 
world's benefactors. That introduction was the 
starting point of a new progress. Its use and 
development made possible the higher mathe- 
matics and analytical mechanics and astronomy, 
and every other science discovered since, and hail- 
ed with delight. Little do we think to-day when 
we pride ourselves on the startling achieve- 
ments of our astronomers and meteorologists and 
other scientists, when we speak of the miracles 
they work in space and time, of the ascensions 
they make to the remotest of the nebulae, and of 
their holding communion there with stars and 
worlds and solar systems whose light has not yet 
reached the earth, little do we think when we 


speak of electricity obeying our every wish, and 
of steam yoked in our service, and of the countless 
other wonders of modern science, little do we 
think that for all these blessings we are lastingly 
indebted to the Arab-Moors, and to their assis- 
tants, the Jews, for their faithful labors in mathe^ 
matics. Little do we think that we are pronounc- 
ing Arabic words when we speak of the "zero" 
or the "cipher", the "naught," that most im- 
portant of all figures, upon which the most need- 
ful of all arithmetical contrivances is based the 
decimal system. And when we remember that 
the prosperity and progress of every country in 
Europe dates from the introduction of the Arabian 
figures * and when we realize the clumsiness and 
uselessness of the Hebrew and Greek and Latin 
alphabet figures, in vogue in Europe before the 
entrance of the Arab-Moors into Spain, and when 
we try to work out a problem of multiplication. 
say ninety-nine multiplied by ninety-nine, in ac- 
cordance with the notation of the Arabic nine 
digits and cipher, and then, in accordance with 
the Roman alphabet figures, XCIX times XCIX, 
then, perhaps, will we most readily give thank- 
ful praise to those to whom Europe owes so 
magnificent a boon to those who, with so simple 
an invention, opened the avenues of prosperity 
and loosened the fetters that had shackled the 
advance of science. 

Encouraged by their success in arithmetic, they 
turned towards a higher branch of mathematics 

*In Germany and England not until the fifteenth century, and hence I 
their backwardness till then. 


and gave to Europe the science of numbers and 
quantity, and named it algebra ("al'jabara," to 
bind parts together). Whether, as some claim, 
the Arab-Moors obtained their knowledge of 
algebra from their schools in Bagdad or Damas- 
cus, who, in their turn, had derived it from the 
Hindoos, or whether, as others claim, the Jews, 
in their diligent translations from the early Greek 
geometricians into Arabic, must have come across, 
and followed up the algebraic trace, which is sup- 
posed to exist in the treatise of Diaphantus (350 
A. C.), or whether the Moorish claim be the true 
one, that the honor of having invented algebra 
belongs to one of their own mathematicians, who 
flourished about the middle of the ninth cen- 
tury, to Mohammed ben Musa, or Moses, * 
whoever the inventors be of this valuable branch 
of mathematics, unanimity of opinion prevails 
concerning one point, and that is, the Arab-Moors 
and Jews first introduced algebra into Europe. 
Still more Iben Musa (or Ben Moses) developed it 
to the solution of quadratic equations, and Ibn 
Ibrahim (Ben Abraham) to the solution of cubic 
equations, Ibn Korrah (or Ben Korah) to the 
application of algebra to geometry, laying thus 
the foundation of analytical geometry. Geome- 
try led them to trigonometry, which they elevated 
to a practical science by substituting sines for 
chords and by establishing formulas and tables of 
tangents and cotangents and secants and cose- 

*A copy of this Arabic work is preserved in the Bodleian library 
a t Oxford, bearing a date of transcription corresponding to the yea. 
1 842. 


cants. From trigonometry Al Baghadadi ad- 
vanced to land surveying, and wrote on it a trea- 
tise so excellent, that by some it has been de- 
clared to be a copy of Euclid's lost work on that 

The unbiased student, who searches diligently 
among the achievements of the Moors and Jews,, 
will soon detect, not only a systematic contriv- 
ance on the part of the literature of Europe to 
put out of sight our obligations to them in science, 
but a bold effort, wherever a chance presents 
itself, to wrest their hard toil from them, and be- 
stow it upon some one, who is not so unfortunate 
as to be Saracen or Jew. But "injustice founded 
on religious rancor and national conceit cannot 
be perpetuated forever." The real truth can not 
be much longer hidden, and if the chapters 
of this volume have no other effect than 
simply to do justice to the memory of those who 
have toiled and who have suffered, that we 
may enjoy, to-day,the blessings of our civilization, 
we shall regard our labors amply rewarded. 

We have digressed, Let us return to our 
theme. They toiled for science sake, not for 
fame. They looked for none. When Spain itself, 
indebted to them for all her blessings, repays so 
miserably their faithful services, why should they 
look to Europe for recognition? "High minds," 
it has been truly said, "are as little affected by such 
unworthy returns for services, as the sun is by 
those fogs which the earth throws up between 
herself and his light."* 

* T. Moores "Life of Sheridan," Vol. 2 Chap. iv. 


And so, expecting no thanks, and working for 
none.they advanced, with their present achieve- 
ments as stepping stones, to the study of astron- 
omy. And marvelous, almost incredible, is their 
success in this department. They determine the 
altitude of celestial bodies by means of the astro- 
labe. They register all the stars in their heaven, 
giving to those of the first magnitudes the names 
they still bear on our celestial maps and globes, 
writing thus indelibly their impress upon the ce- 
lestial heaven, though it be denied them in the 
literature of Europe. They give us the words 
"azimuth," "zenith," "nadir," "almanac," and oth- 
ers. They compute time by the oscillations of 
the pendulum, and determine the true length of 
the year. They discover the theory of the refrac- 
tion of light and ascertain the curvilinear path of 
a ray of light through the air. They explain the 
horizontal sun and moon, and why we see those 
bodies before they have risen and after they have 
set. They measure the height of the atmosphere 
and determine it to be nearly fifty-eight and one 
half miles. They give the true theory of the twi- 
light, and of the twinkling of the stars. They not 
only know the spheroidal form of the earth, but 
approximately its diameter and circumference. 
Averroes discovers the spots upon the sun. Kep- 
ler alludes honorably to the observations of Levi 
ben Gerson, and Copernicus to those of Profiat 
Duran, and Laplace accepts Ibn Musa's proof of 
the dimunition of the eccentricity . of the earth's 
orbit, and Ibn Junis' proof of the obliquity of the 
ecliptic. They invent the first pendulum clock. 


They build the first observatory in Europe, the 
Giralda, (1196 A. C.) turned into a belfry after 
the expulsion of the Moors and Jews. They 
almost discover the laws of gravity, considering 
it terrestial, reserving it for Newton to teach that 
it is universal. Rabbi Isaac ben Sid prepares for 
Alphonso X., king of Castile, new astronomical 
tables, for which Alphonso takes the credit, names 
them the Alphonsine tables, and is modest enough 
to remark: "That if God had called him (the 
king) into His councils when He created the uni- 
verse, things would have been in a better and 
simpler order." 

The Church, in the meanwhile, does her best 
to refute the "ungodly scientific teachings" of the 
Moors and Jews. The argument of the "Sohar" 
that the earth revolves upon its own axis and 
around the sun (a Jewish teaching in the twelfth 
century, anticipating that of Copernicus), the 
shining lights of the church nail to the ground 
with clinchers from the Bible such as these: "The 
sun runneth about from one end of the heaven to 
the other," and "the foundations of the earth are 
so firmly fixed that they cannot be moved." 
The absurdity of the existence of the antipodes 
they prove to their full satisfaction in this man- 
ner: "It is impossible that any inhabitants exist 
on the opposite side of the earth, since no such 
race is recorded by Scriptures among the descend- 
ants of Adam." Again, "we are told by St. Paul 
that all men are made to live 'upon the face of 
the earth,' from which it clearly follows that they 
can not live upon more faces than one or upon 


the back." Again, "how could men exist on the 
other side of the earth, since on the day of judg- 
ment, being on the other side, they could not see 
the Lord ascending through the air?" Ergo, the 
teachings of the Church alone are the true theo- 
ries of this universe, "concerning which it is not 
lawful for a Christian to doubt." 

But the Moors and Jews treated with contempt 
this puerile opposition, little thinking that the 
Church of "Love unto all men" has stronger and 
more convincing weapons than tongue and pen to 
, prove her points. They persevered in their path so 
\well begun. They turned to the physical sciences. 
They originated chemistry. They discovered 
some of the most important reagents, such as the 
nitric, sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, and alco- 
;hol, which still bears its Arabic name. They 
knew the chemical affinities of gold, silver, cop- 
per, iron, tin, lead and quicksilver. They in- 
vented various apparatus for distillation, sublima- 
tion, fusion, filtration, etc. They constructed 
tables of specific gravities. In geology, Abu 
Othman wrote a valuable work. In zoology, the 
following extract from a chapter of Avicenna 
(Ibn Sinai or Ben Sinai) on the origin of the 
mountains, which reads as if it were written by 
one of the most advanced geologists of our 
day, will best indicate the heights to which they 
attained in this science. "Mountains" said 
Ibn Sina (980-1037), "may be due to two differ- 
ent causes. Either they are upheavals of the 
crust of the earth, such as might occur during a 
violent earthquake, or they are the effects of 


water, which, cutting for itself a new route, has 
denuded the valleys, the strata being of different 
kinds some soft, some hard. The winds and 
waters disintegrate the one, but leave the other 
intact * That water has been the 

main cause of these facts is proved by the exist- 
ence of fossil remains of aquatic and other ani- 
mals on many mountains." ' 

But little has been cited here concerning 
the position of the Moors and Jews in the 
sciences. The field is too vast and the scope of 
this volume will not permit us to enter into 
greater details. He that wculd have fuller 
knowledge upon this theme let him peruse the 
following works, to which I am largely indebted 
for the facts stated above. "Geschichte der Ara- 
bischen Aerzte and Naturforscher," Wuestenfeld; 
"Conquest of Spain," "Book V.," by Coppe; 
"Eastern Caliphate," Stanislaus Guyard; "His- 
tory of Algebra," Phillip Kelland; "History of 

* Sometimes, not without surprise, we meet with ideas which we 
flatter ourselves have originated in our own times. Thus our modern 
doctrines of evolution and development were taught in their schools. In 
fact, they carried them much farther than we are disposed to do, ex- 
tending them even to inorganic and mineral things. The fundamental 
principle of alchemy was the natural process of development of metalline 
bodies. "When common people," says Al-Khazini, writing in the 
twelfth century, "hear from natural philosophers that gold is a body 
which has attained to perfection of maturity, to the goal of complete- 
ness, they firmly believe that it is something which has gradually come 
to that perfection by passing through the forms of all other metallic 
bodies, so that its gold nature was originally lead, afterward it became 
tin, then brass, then silver, and finally reached the development of gold; 
not knowing that the natural philosophers mean, in saying this, only 
something like what they mean when they speak of man, and attribute 
to him a completness and equilibrium in nature and constitution not 
that man was once a bull, and was changed into an ass, and afterward 
into a horse, and after that into an ape, and finally became a man." 
- " Conflict between Religion and Science," by Draper, Chap. fV. 


Arithmetic," George McArthur; "Astronomy,' 
R. A. Proctor; "The Intellectual Development of 
Europe," Draper; "Conflict Between Religion and 
Science," Draper; "Rationalism in Europe," Lecky. 

Yet, even though our synoptical review has 
been brief we have seen and heard enough to 
understand fully why in the year 1492, and with- 
in the realm of Spain, Wisdom mourns and 
Knowledge wails, and Science is broken-hearted 
and Europe trembles. Anguish seizes upon our 
soul at the thought, yet a little while, and all this 
wondrous intellectual advance, so active and so 
promising will be torn off the soil of Europe, root 
and all, and darkness, cruel darkness, ignorance, 
cruel ignorance, will ascend the throne once 
more and usher into the scenes of life stagnation, 
corruption, suffering, despair. 

For science and for humanity's sake we ven- 
ture to approach the princes of the realm and 
prelates of the church and plead for mercy. "No!" 
is the stern reply of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
"Spain is polluted by the presence of the accursed 
Moors and Jews." "Avaunt!" shouts Cardinal 
Ximenes, "Catholicism is in danger where Moor- 
ish and Jewish brain is at work." "Mercy ye 
ask for," fairly shrieks the Grand Inquisitor Tor- 
quemada, "the Church knows no mercy for the 
Moorish and Jewish infidel dogs. Begone, or 
their fate is yours." 

We are not yet prepared for death. Our task 
is not yet done. Many a Moorish and Jewish 
achievement remains still to be spoken of, and so 
we shall hasten our review, while yet we may 
speak of their position in literature. 





When we turn to an examination of the posi- 
tion of the Jews and Moors of Spain in Literature, 
and behold their progress in this department of 
knowledge, we are not so much surprised as we 
were when we surveyed the wondrous advance 
both did make in the department of science, at a 
time when the rest of Europe was still under the 
spell of a mental torpor. The great epochs of 
the world's- literature have ever had their origin 
during times of peace and prosperity. They may 
continue into turbulent times, and even outlive 
them, but never' can they take root in them. 
Such an age Spain and its people were enjoying 
for many years under Moorish sway. The 
Moors had ended their conquests, and for a while 
the Jews enjoyed freedom from persecution. 


Peace prevailed, and prosperity gladdened the 
heart of man. 'Hills and dales yielded bountiful 
harvests. The rich mines of Spain brought to 
light the treasures of the earth. The long line of 
coast was crowded with vessels, which restlessly 
furrowed the oceans, exchanging the products of 
Europe for the wealth of the Orient. The com- 
merce of the world centered in Spain ; there, too, 
could be found its wealth. The age was ripe for 
literary activity. 

The Jews were the first to open this epoch- 
making era of European literature. The past 
had shown that the Jewish mind needs no other 
impetus for earnest intellectual toil than an age 
of peace and prosperity, and the present marked 
no departure from the general rule. The Arab- 
Moors, sharing the general characteristics of the 
Jews, did not tarry long behind ; as the Jews were 
mindful of the teachings of their sages, that the 
crown of learning is the greatest of honors, so 
did the Moors remember the words of the great 
Caliph Al Mamum: "They are the elect of God, 
they are His best and most useful servants, whose 
lives are devoted to the improvement of their 
rational faculties." And so great was .the literary 
zeal ofboth these races that within comparatively 
few years there arose a literature upon grammar, 
lexicography, rhetoric, history, politics, biogra- 
phy, translation, statistics, music, fiction, poetry, 
law, ethics, theology, philosophy, much of which, 
despite our boasting of to-day, not only need not 
fear modern criticism, but is still authority. 
And it endured for nearly eight centuries, ex- 


ceeding in duration that of any other literature, 
ancient or modern, and even after it was crushed, 
it continued to emit a steady luster through the 
clouds and darkness of succeeding centuries. Like 
a flood it overflowed the mountain barriers and 
went on. widely irrigating the arid fields of Europe. 
The provisions for education were abundant. 
To every mosque and synagogue a free school 
was attached. Endowed colleges dotted the 
Saracen Empire, in which free tuition was given . 
to all who were eager for knowledge, and sti- 
pends were cheerfully furnished the indigent stu- 
dents. In addition to this, many of the caliphs 
distinguished themselves not only for their schol- 
arly attainments, but also for their munificent pat- 
ronage of learning. They assembled the emi- 
nent scholars of their times, both natives and for- 
eigners, at their court making it the familiar re- 
sort of men of letters, establishing a precedent 
which the Medicis later turned to excellent use. 
Above all, they were intent upon the acquisition 
of extensive libraries. They invited illustrious 
foreigners to send them their works, and muni- 
cently recompensed them. No donation was so 
grateful to them as a book. They employed 
agents in Egypt, Syria. Irak and Persia, for col- 
lecting and transcribing the rarest manuscripts; 
and their vessels returned freighted with cargoes 
more precious than the spices of the East. In 
this way they amassed magnificent collections 
that of Alhakem Second amounted to 600,000 
volumes. * Our own Harvard cannot reach hah 

*Prescott's "Ferdinand and Isabella," Book I, chap., 8, C'onde's 
"History of Spain," II., chap., 88. 


that number, even in the nineteenth century, and 
with the advantage, of steam and printing press. 
Besides these royal libraries, seventy public libra- 
ries are named in Andalusia. The collections in 
the possession of individuals were sometimes 
very extensive. A private doctor refused the 
invitation of a sultan of Bokhara because the 
transportation of his books would have reqiured 
400 camels' 

The subjects upon which these thousands upon 
thousands of volumes treat are so manifold, and 
the authors so numerous the department of his- 
tory, for instance, according to an Arabian author 
cited by D'Herbelot, could boast of 1,300 wri- 
ters that even a synoptical review of them would 
need more space and time than the scope of these 
discourses will allow, and so we dismiss them with 
the s imple remark that such is their excellence, 
such the influence they exercised upon the litera- 
ture of Europe that a careful perusal of the works 
still extant in the original or in translation will 
well repay the special student of any of the spe- 
cial branches of literature of which they treat. 

The poetry of that period, however, refuses to 
be dismissed. She bids us halt, She, the queen 
of literature, is not accustomed to such slight. 
She was born to rule, she brooks no opposition, 
and so we pause. And after we have held sweet 
converse with her minstrel bards, and after we 
have perused a number of the almost countless 
volumes devoted to winged words of music and 
to poetic fancy, we regret not. that she made us 
pause. No longer do we think her boast an idle 


one that Spain, during, the period that extends 
from the eighth to the' fifteenth century, can show 
a greater number of poets than all the other na- 
tions combined. We need not ask the reason 
why. Any one acquainted with the extraordinary 
richness of both the Hebrew and its kindred 
the Arabic language their natural cadence, 
which lends itself to verse, the ease which both 
languages afford in passing from prose to poetry, 
and with the bent of mind of both races, poetical, 
delighting in figurative speech, in metaphor and 
allegory and fable, in luxuriant imagery and fan- 
ciful romance, any one acquainted with their 
Oriental predeliction for the fairer sex, which 
could only express itself in languishing idyls or 
passionate lyric sonnets, any one knowing all 
this, will not wonder at the vastriess of the Jew- 
ish and Moorish poetic literature. 

The Moors excelled in what was then known 
as the art of "story telling." They had brought it 
with them from the East and the enchanting moon- 
light evenings of Andalusia, and the sequestered, 
fairy-like gardens, with their shady cypress trees, 
and their cascades, and their flowering shrubs, 
and their bowers of roses, and their crypt-like 
grottoes, all these tended to keep the love for their 
art alive. With them "this story telling," both 
in prose and poetry, took the place of theatrical 
representation. Those of you familiar with one 
of the many extant prose collections of stories 
such as "The Arabian Nights," can readily form 
an opinion of the great charm that branch of lit- 
erature must have had in the original language 
for the Moorish people. 


Physicians often ordered "story telling" as a 
prescription for their patients, to mitigate their 
sufferings, to calm their agitation and to give 
sleep after protracted insomnia, or to beguile the 
ennui of the grandees, or to recreate them after 
their fatigues. The "munshids" or "storytellers" 
found their vocation a very honored and a very 
profitable one, and they took great pains, to fos- 
ter that art. 

These stories and their lyric poetry exercised 
a potent influence over the literature of Southern 
and Western Europe. It can be traced in the 
reproduction of many stories as well as in the 
structure of the French "fabliaux" and "chansons 
de geste" of the "jongleuers" "trouveres" of the 
North; and is more particularly to be observed in 
"legai saber" oi Provencal troubadours. It extended 
into Italy, and is found in the charming stanzas 
of Ariosto, and in the "twice told tales" of Boc- 
caccio's "Decameron." 

In a word, the entire fiction and poety of 
Southern Europe, up to the Renaissance, owes 
as much to the Spanish-Arabians for matter and 
form, as it does to the Latin language.* Still 
more, when we remember that our English Chau- 
cer borrowed the scheme of his "Canterbury Tales" 
from several of the stories of Boccaccio, and other 
Italian writers, and that other English writers im- 
itated Chaucer in borrowing plots and subjects 
from Italy and France and Spain-, we may well 
claim that the Arabian idea has penetrated into 

*Fauriel's "Historic de la Poesie Provencal," chapter xiii. 


the North, and left its profound impression upon 
English literature. * 

But in the purer poetry, in touching tenderness 
of pathos, in sublimity ot thought and majesty of 
diction, in those lofty flights where hope blends 
with sorrow, and with a religious fervor that is 
tempered by celestial sweetness and warmth of 
heart, here, the Jewish poets of Spain not only 
excel their Moorish rivals, but every poet before 
cr since. Once more Israel's sons and dauo-h- 


ters took their harps of Judea from off the mourn- 
ing willows, and the Songs of Zion, the Glory of 
Israel, and the Praises of the Universal Father 
resounded again as sweet in the fairy land of 
Andalusia, as formerly upon the banks of the Jor- 
dan. They consecrated their Muse to the purest 
and holiest purposes. The epigram of Aben Esra, 
one of the immortal poets of this age, tells brief- 
est and best the uses to which poetry lent itself 
among the various nations. He wrote: 

"Among the Arabs in their fiery way, 

The song doth breathe alone of loves sweet sway. 

The Roman sings exultant of war's spoils. 

Of battles, sieges and warriors toils. 

In wit and spirit doth the Greek excel, 

And India's bards of curious riddles tell, 

But songs devoted to the Maker's praise, 

The Jews alone among the nations raise." 

We do not mean to convey by this, that the 
Jewish poets of Spain devoted themselves only 
and exclusively to the sacred song. Jehuda Ha- 

* "Conquest of Spain," by Coppee, Book x. 


Levi thus sings of love and wine as fiery as e'er 
did Moorish bard.* 


"See'st thou o'er my shoulder falling 

Snake-like ringlets waving free? 
Have no fear, for they are twisted 

To allure thee unto me." 

Thus she spake, the gentle dove, 

Listen to thy plighted love: 
"Ah, how long I wait, until 

Sweetheart cometh back (she said) 
Laying his caressing hand 

Underneath my burning head." 


And so we twain must part! Oh linger yet, 

Let me still feed my glance upon thine eyes. 

Forget not, love, the days of our delight, 

And I our nights of bliss shall ever prize. 

In dreams thy shadowy image I shall see, 
Oh even in my dream be kind to me ! 

Though I were dead, I none the less would hear 
Thy step, thy garment rustling on the sand. 

And if thou waft me greetings from the grave, 

I shall drink deep the breath of that cold land. 

Take thou my days, command this life of mine, 
If it can lengthen out the space of thine. 

No voice I hear from lips death-pale and chill, 
Yet deep within my heart it echoes still. 

My frame remains my soul to thee yearns forth, 
A shadow I must tarry still on earth. 

Back to the body dwelling here in pain, 

Return, my soul, make haste and come again! 

Thus sings Moses ben Esra; 

The shadow of the houses leave behind, 
In the cool boscage of the grove reclined, 
The wine of friendship from love's goblet drink, 
And entertain with cheerful speech the mind. 

Drink, friend! behold the dreary winter's gone, 
The mantle of old age has time withdrawn, 
The sunbeam glitters in the morning dew, 
O'er hill and vale youth's bloom is surging on. 

*This and the following selections are taken from Miss Emma La/a- 
rus' translations in "Songs of a Semite." 


Cup-hearer! quench with snow the goblet's fire, 
Even as the wise man cools and stills his ire. 
Look, when the jar is drained, upon the brim 
The light foam melteth with the heart's desire. 

Cup-bearer! bring anear the silver bowl, 
And with the glowing gold fulfill the whole, 
Unto the weak new vigor it imparts, 
And without lance subdues the heroe's soul. 

My love sways, dancing, like the myrtle-tree. 
The masses of her curls disheveled see! 
She kills me with her darts, intoxicates 
My burning blood, and will not set me free. 

Within the aromatic garden come, 

And slowly in its shadows let us roam, 

The foliage be the turban for our brows, 

And the green branches o'er our heads a dome. 

All pain thouwith the goblet shalt assuage, 
The wine-cup heah the sharpest pangs that rage, 
Let others crave inheritance of wealth, 
Joy be our portion and our heritage. 

Drink in the the garden, friend, anigh the rose, 
Richer than spice's breath the soft air blows. 
If it should cease a little traitor then, 
A zephyr light its secret would disclose. 

Extracts from the Book of Tarshish or ''Necklace of Pearls. " 

It was not for want of cause that the sedate 
greybeards of Cordova applied for legal aid to 
have the passionate love songs of Abraham Ibn 
Sahal prohibited, for there was not a youth or 
maiden in the city who could not repeat them by 
heart. And as to songs of war and wit and spir- 
it, the "Makamen" of ^ehuda ben Salamo ben 
Alchofni, better known as "Charisi" gives am- 
ple proof to assure us that the Jews might have 
become dangerous rivals to the Roman and 
Greek writers had they fostered that phase of 
poetry as did these. Thus sings Charisi; 




The long-closed door, oh open it again, send me back 

once more my fawn that had fled. 
On the da/ of our reunion, thou shalt rest by my side, 

there wilt thou shed over me the streams of thy 

delicious perfume. 
Oh beautiful bride, what is the form of thy friend, that 

thou say to me, Release him, send him away? 
Me is the beautiful-eyed one of ruddy glorious aspect 

that is my friend, him do thou detain. 


Hail to thee, son of my friend, the ruddy, the bright 

colored one! Hail to thee whose temples are like 

a pomegranate. 
Hasten to the refuge of thy sister, and protect the son 

of Isaiah against the troops of the Ammonites. 
What art thou, O Beauty, that thou shouldst inspire 

love? that thy voice should ring like the voices of 

the bells upon the priestly garments? 
The hour wherein thou desirest my love, I shall hasten 

to meet thee. Softly will I drop beside thee like 

the dew upon Hennon. 

And as to the curious riddles which India's 
bards did tell, let us translate one or two, from 
Jehuda Ha-Levi to show that even into this field 
of poetic fancy the Jewish mind did wander, and it 
plucked there fruit as choice as India's bards did 
ever pluck. Ha-Levi asks, Who solves this: 

Eye it has and yet is blind, 
Of service it is to human kind; 
Raiment it makes, both large and small, 
And still itself is bare of all. 

(Answer: "The Needle.") 


Or this: 

Would true friendship ye maintain 
Hither come and learn it; 
What us would part we cut in twain, 
While we remain uninjured. 

(Answer: "The two knives of a pair of scissors. ") 

As to their skill in reflective and descriptive 
poetry, let the following specimens show: 


Will night already spread her wings and %veave 

Her dusky robes about the day's bright form, 

Boldly the sun's fair countenance displacing, 

And swathe it with her shadow in broad day? 

So a green wreath of mist enrings the moon, 

Till envious clouds do quite encompass her. 

No wind! and yet the slender stem is stirred, 

With faint, slight motion as from inward tremor. 

Mine eyes are lull of grief who sees me, asks, 

"Oh wherefore dost thou cling unto the ground?" 

My friends discourse with sweet and soothing words; 

They all are vain, they glide above my head. 

I fain would check my tears; would fain enlarge 

Unto infinity, my heart in vain! 

Grief presses hard my breast, therefore my tears 

Have scarcely dried, ere they again spring forth. 

l*or these are streams, no furnace heat may quench, 

Nebuchadnezzar's flames may dry them not. 

What is the pleasure of the day for me, 

If, in its crucible, I must renew 

Incessantly the pangs of purifying? 

Up, challenge, wrestle and o'ercome! Be strong! 

The late grapes cover all the vine with fruit. 

I am not glad, though even the lion's pride 

Content itself upon the field's poor grass. 

My spirit sinks beneath the tide, soars not 

With fluttering senmews on the moist, soft strand. 

I follow fortune not, where'er she lead. 

Lord o'er myself, I banish her, compel 

And though her clouds should rain no blessed dew, 

Though she withhold the crown, the heart's desire, 

Though all deceive, though honey change to gall, 

Still am I Lord, and will in freedom strive. 



The Autumn promised, and he keeps 

His word unto the meadow-rose. 

The pure, bright lightnings herald Spring, 

Serene and glad the fresh earth shows. 

The rain has quenched her children's thirst, 

Her cheeks, but now so cold and dry, 

Are soft and fair, a laughing face; 

With clouds of purple shines the sky, 

Though filled with light, yet veiled with haze. 

Hark! hark! the turtle's mocking note 

Outsings the valley-pigeon's lays. 

Her wings are gemmed, and from her throat, 

When the clear sun gleams back again, 

It seems to me as though she wore 

About her neck a jeweled chain. 

Say, wilt thou darken such a light, 

Wilt drag the clouds from heaven's height? 

Although thy heart with anger swell, 

Vet firm as marble, mine doth dwell. 

Therein no fear thy wrath begets, 

It is not shaken by thy threats. 

Yea, hurl thy darts, thy weapons wield, 

The strength of youth is still my shield. 

My winged steed toward the heights doth bound, 

The dust whirls upward from the ground: 

My song is scanty, dost thou deem 

Thine eloquence a mighty stream? 

Only the blameless offering 

Not the profusion man may bring, 

Prevaileth with our Lord and King. 

The long days out of minutes grow, 

And out of months the years arise. 

Wilt thou be master of the wise, 

Then learn the hidden stream to know, 

That from the inmost heart doth flow. 


With heavy groans did I approach my friends. 
Heavy as though the mountains I would move. 
The flagon they were murdering; they poured 
Into the cup, wild-eyed, the grape's red blood. 
No they killed not, they breathed new life therein. 
Then, too, in fiery rapture, burned my veins, 



But soon the fumes had fled. In vain, in vain! 

Ye cannot fill the breach of the rent heart. 

Ye crave a sensuous joy; ye strive in vain 

To cheat with flames of passion, my despair. 

So when the sinking sun draws near to night, 

The sky's bright cheeks fade 'neath those tresses black. 

Ye laugh but silently the soul weeps on; 

Ye cannot stifle her sincere lament. 


"Conquer the gloomy night of thy sorrow, for the 
morning greets thee with laughter. 

Rise and clothe thyself with noble pride 

Break loose from the tryanny of grief. 

Thou standest alone among men, 

Thy song is like pearl in beauty." 

So spake my friend, 'Tis well! 

The billows of the stormy sea which overwhelmed my 

These I subdue; I quake not 

Before the bow and arrow of destiny. 

I endured with patience when he deceitfully lied to me 

With his treacherous smile. 

Yea, boldly I defv Fate, 

I cringe not to envious Fortune 

I mock the towering floods. 

My brave heart does not shrink 

This heart of mine, that, albeit young in years, 

Is none the less rich in deep, keen-eyed experience. 


Where is the man who has been tried and found strong 

and sound? 

Where is the friend of reason and of knowledge? 
I see only skeptics and weaklings. 
I see only the prisoners in the durance of the senses. 
And every fool and every spendthrift 
Thinks himself as great a master as Aristotle. 
Think'st thou that they have written poems, 
Call'st thou that a Song? 
I call it the cackling of the ravens. 
The zeal of the p.ophet must free poesy 
From the embrace of wanton youths. 
My song I have inscribed on the forehead ol Time, 
They know it and hate it for it is lofty . 



Oh, West, how fragrant breathes thy gentle air, 
Spikenard and aloes on thy pinions glide. 
Thou hlow'st from spicy chambers, not from there 
Where angry winds and tempests fierce abide. 
As on a bird's wings thou dost waft me home, 
Sweet as a bundle of rich myrrh to me. 
And after thee yearn all the throngs that roam 
And furrow with light keel the rolling sea. 
Desert her not our ship bide with her oft, 
When the day sinks and in the morning light. 
Smooth thou the deeps and make the billows soft, 
Nor rest save at our goal, the sacred height. 
Chicle thou the East that chafes the raging flood, 
And swells the towering surges wild and rude. 
What can I do, the elements' poor slave? 
Now do they hold me fast, now leave me free; 
Cling to the Lord, my soul, for He will save, 
Who caused the mountains and the winds to be. 

(Extracts from the Book of Tarshish, or "Necklace of Pearls.") 

Thou who art clothed in silk, who drawest on 
Proudly thy raiment of fine linen spun, 
Bethink thee of the day wher thou alone 
Shalt dwell at last beneath the marble stone. 

Anigh the nest of adders thine abode, 
With the earth-crawling serpent and the toad, 
Trust in the Lord, He will sustain thee there. 
And without fear thy soul shall rest with God. 

If the world flatter thee with soft-voiced art, 
Know 'tis a cunning witch who charms thy heart, 
Whose habit is to wed man's soul with grief, 
And those who are close-bound in love to part. 

He who bestows his wealth upon the poor, 
Has only lent it to the Lord, be sure 
Of what avail to clasp it with clenched hand? 
It goes not with us to the grave obscure. 

The voice of those who dwell within the tomb, 
Who in corruption's house have made their home; 
"Oh ye who wander o'er us still to-day, 
When will ye come to share with us the gloom?" 

How can'st thou ever of the world complain, 
And murmuring, burden it with all thy pain? 
Silence! thou art a traveler at inn, 
A guest, who may but over night remain. 


But with all their distinguished merits in these 
branches of poetic literature, they laid no claims 
to recognition, nor shall we claim it for them. 
Their aspiration was higher. Their lay was 
sacred. Their ideal of poetic grandeur was the 
writing and singing of majestic hymns, and they 
have given us a hymnology, a collection of pure 
and sacred songs, that has never yet been 
equalled. We know not what rational religious 
fervor is, we know not what real piety is, we 
know not what joyful ectasy is, nor what tearful 
and penitent tenderness means, we know not 
what trust in, and love of God is, we know not 
what it is to hear the heart speak to and of God, 
and the soul sing her Maker's praise, we know 
not what passionate devotion to, and deathless 
love for, Israel's cause, for the memory of her 
glorious past and for the hopes of her- future is, 
we know not what all these are and mean, until 
we have read some of the hymns and sacred odes 
and elegies and meditations of the Jewish poets of 
Spain. Turn to your "Day of Atonement" ser- 
vices; read there the inexpressibly beautiful con- 
tributions to sacred poetic literature by Rabbi 
Solomon ben Jehuda Gabirol, or Rabbi Joseph 
ben Ibn Abitur, or Rabbi Bechai ben Joseph, or 
Rabbi Moses ben Esra, or the greatest of them 
all Rabbi JeJmda ben Samuel Ha-Levi, and 
answer it, where have you seen and where have 
you read or heard, anything that will bear com- 
parison, with their religious poetry? Let us see 
the following from Gabirol : 




Forget thine anguish, 

Vexed heart, again, 

Why should'st thou langurh, 

With earthly pain? 

The husk shall slumber, 

Bedded in clay, 

Silent and sombre, 

Oblivion's prey! 

But, Spirit immortal, 

Thou at Death's portal, 

Tremblest with fear. 

If he caress thee, 

Curse thee or bless thee, 

Thou must draw near, 

From him the worth of thy works to hear. 

Why full of terror, 

Compassed with error, 

Trouble thy heart, 

For thy mortal part? 

The soul flies home 

The corpse is dumb. 

Of all thou didst have, 

Follows naught to the grave. 

Thou fliest thy nest, 

Swift as a bird to thy place of rest. 

What avail grief and fasting, 

Where nothing is lasting? 

Pomp, domination, 

Become tribulation . 

In a health-giving draught, 

A death-dealing shaft. 

Wealth an illusion, 

Power a lie, 

Over all, dissolution 

Creeps silent and sly. 

Unto others remain 

The goods thou didst gain 

With infinite pain. 

Life is a vine-branch; 

A vintager, death. 

He threatens and lowers 

More near with each breath. 

Then hasten, arise! 

Seek God, oh my soul! 


For time quickly flies, 
Still far is the goal. 
Vain heart praying dumbly, 
Learn to prize humbly, 
The meanest of fare . 
Forget all thy sorrow, 
Behold, Death is there! 

Dove-like lamenting, 

Be full of repenting, 

Lift vision supernal 

To raptures eternal. 

On every occasion 

Seek lasting salvation. 

Pour out thy heart in weeping, 

While others are sleeping. 

Pray to Him when all's still, 

Performing His will. 

And so shall the angel of peace be thy warden, 

And guide thee at last to the heavenly garden. 


Almighty! what is man? 

But flesh and blood. 

Like shadows flee his days, 

He marks not how they vanish from his gaze. 

Suddenly, he must die 

He droppeth, stunned, into nonentity. 

Almighty! what is man? 

A body irail and weak, 

Full of deceit and lies, * 

Of vile hypocrisies. 

Now like a flower blowing, 

Now scorched by sunbeams glowing. 

And wilt thou of his trespasses inquire? 

How may he ever bear 

Thine anger just, thy vengeance dire? 

Punish him not, but spare, 

For he is void of power and strength! 

Almighty! what is man? 

By filthy lust possessed. 

Whirled in a round of lies, 

Fond frenzy swells his breast. 

The pure man sinks in mire and slime, 

The noble shrinketh not from crime, 

Wilt thou resent on him the charms of sin? 


Like fading grass, 

So shall he pass. 

Like chaff that blows 

Where the wind goes. 

Then spare him, he thou merciful, O King, 

Upon the dreaded day of reckoning! 

Almighty! what is man? 

The haughty son of time 

Drinks deep of sin, 

And feeds on crime 

Seething like waves that roll, 

Hot as a glowing coal. 

And wilt thou punish him for sins inborn? 

Lost and forlorn, 

Then like the weakling he must fall, 

Who some great hero strives withal. 

Oh, spare him, therefore! let him win 

Grace for his sin! 

Almighty! what is man? 
Spotted in guilty wise, 
A stranger unto faith, . 

Whose tongue is stained with lies. 
And shalt thou count his sins so is he lost, 
Uprooted by thy breath. 
Like to a stream by tempest tossed, 
His life falls from him like a cloak, 
He passes into nothingness, like smoke. 
Then spare him, punish m t, be kind, I pray, 
To him who dwellelh in the dust, an image 
wrought in clay! 

Almighty! what is man? 
. A withered bough! 

When he is awestruck by approaching dcom. 
Like a dried blade of grass, so weak, so low, 
The pleasure of his life is changed to gloom. 
He crumbles like a garment spoiled with moth; 
According to his sins wilt thou be wroth? 
He melts like wax before the candle's breath, 
Yea, like thin water, so he vanisheth, 
Oh, spare him, therefore for thy gracious name, 
And be not too evere upon his shame! 

Almighty! what is man? 

A faded leaf! 

If thou dost weigh him in the balance lo! 

He disappears a breath that thou dost blow. 

His heart is ever filled 

With lust of lies unstilled. 


Wilt bear in mind in his crime 

Unto all time? 

He fades away like clouds sun-kissed, 

Dissolves like mist. 

Then spare him! let him love and mercy win, 

According to thy grace, and not according to his sin! 

Or this of Moses ben Esra. 


Unto the house of prayer my spirit yearns, 
Unto the sources of her beings turns, 
To where the sacred light of heaven burns, 
She struggles thitherward by day and night. 

The splendor of God's glory blinds her eyes, 
Up without wings she soareth to the skies, 
With silent aspiration seeks to rise, 
In dusky evening and in darksome night. 

To her the wonders of God's works appear, 
She longs with fervor Him to draw anear, 
The tidings of His glory reach her ear, 
From morn to even, and from night to night. 

The banner of thy grace did o'er me rest, 
Yet was thy worship banished from my breast. 
Almighty, thou didst seek me out and test 
To try and to instruct me in the night. 

I dare not idly on my pillow lie, 
With winged feet to the shrine I fain would fly, 
When chained by leaden slumbers heavily, 
Men rest in imaged shadows, dreams of night. 

Infatuate I trifled youth awa/, 

In nothingness dreamed through my manhood's day. 
Therefore my streaming tears I may not stay, 
They are my meat and diink by day and night. 

In flesh imprisoned is the son of light, 
This life is but a bridge when seen aright, 
Rise in the silent hour and pray with might, 
Awake and call upon thy God by night! 

Hasten to cleanse thyself of sin, arise! 
Follow Truth's path that leads unto the skies, 
As swift as yesterday existence flies, 
Brief even as a watch within the night. 


Man enters life for trouble; all he has. 
And all that he beholds, is pain, alas! 
Like to a flower does he bloom and pass, 
He fadeth like a vision of the night. 

The surging floods of life around him roar, 
Death feeds upon him, pity is no more, 
To others all his riches he gives o'er, 
And dieth in the middle hour of night. 

Crushed by the burden of my sins I pray, 
Oh, wherefore shunned I not the evil way? 
Deep are my sighs, I weep the livelong day, 
And wet my couch with tears night after night. 

My spirit stirs, my streaming tears still run, 
Like to the wild bird's notes my sorrows' tone, 
In the hushed silence loud resounds my groan, 
My soul arises moaning in the night. 

Within her narrow cell oppressed with dread, 
Bare of adornement and with grief-bowed head 
Lamenting, many a tear her sad eyes shed, 
She weeps with anguish in the gloomy night. 

For tears my burden seem to lighten best, 
Could I but weep my hearts t*lood, I might rest. 
My spirit bows with mighty grief oppressed, 
I utter forth my prayer^within the night. 

Youth's charm has like a fleeting shadow gone, 
With eagle wings the hours of life have flown. 
Alas! the time when pleasure I have known. 
I may not now recall by day or night. 

The haughty scorn pursues me of my foe, 
Evil his thought, yet soft his speech and low. 
Forget it not, But bear his purpose so 
Forever in thy mind by day and night. 

Observe a pious fast, be whole again, 
Hasten to purge thy heart of every stain. 
No more from prayer and penitence refrain, 
But turn unto thy god by day and night. 

He speaks : "My son, yea, I will send thee aid, 
Bend thou thy steps to me, be not afraid. 
No nearer friend than I am, hast thou made, 
Possess thy soul in patience one more night." 


Read the following stanzas culled from Ha- 
Levi's "Elegy on Zion" and ask yourselves, 
where is the sacred epic that will compare with 



My two-score years and ten are over, 

Never again shall youth he mine. 
The years are ready-winged for flying, 

What crav'st thou still offcast and wine? 
Wilt thou still court man's acclamation, 

Forgetting what the Lord hath said? 
And forfeiting thy weal eternal, 

By thine own guilty heart misled? 
Shalt thou have never done with folly, 

Still fresh and new must it arise? 
( >h heed it not, heed not the senses, 

But follow God, be meek and wise: 
Yea, profit by thy days remaining, 

They hurry swiftly to the goal. 
Be zealous in the Lord's high service, 

And banish falsehood from thy soul . 
Use all thy strength, use all thy fervor, 

Defy thine own desires, awaken! 
Be not afraid when seas are foaming, 

And earth to her foundations shaken. 
Benumbed the hand then of the sailor, 

The captain's skill and power are lamed, 
daily they sailed with colors flying, 

And now turn home again ashamed. 
The ocean is our only refuge, 

The sandbank is our only goal, 
The masts are swaying as with terror, 

And quivering does the vessel roll. 
The mad wind frolics with the billows, 

Now smooths them low, now lashes high. 
Now they are storming up like lions, 

And now like serpents sleek they lie: 
And wave on wave is ever pressing, 

They hiss, they whisper, soft of tone. 
Alack! was that the vessel splitting? 

Are sail and mast and rudder gone? 
Here, screams of fright, there, silent weeping. 

The bravest feels his courage fail, 
What stead our prudence or our wisdom? 

The soul itself can naught avail. 


And each one to his God is crying, 

Soar up, my soul, to Him aspire, 
Who wrought a miracle for Jordan, 

Extol Him, oh angelic choir! 
Remember Him who stays the tempest, 

The stormy billows doth control. 
Who quickeneth the lifeless body, 

And fills the empty frame with soul . 
Behold! once more appears a wonder, 

The angry waves erst raging wild, 
Like quiet flocks of sheep reposing, 

So soft, so still, so gently mild. 
The sun descends, and high in heaven, 

The golden-circled moon doth stand. 
Within the sea the stars are straying, 

Like wanderers in an unknown land. 
The lights celestial in the waters 

Are flaming clearly a* above, 
As though the very heavens descended, 

To seal a covenant of love. 
Perchance both sea and sky, twin oceans. 

From the same source of grace are sprung. 
'Twixt these my hea.t, a third sea, surges, 

With songs resounding, clearly sung. 


A watery waste the sinful world has grown, 

With no dry spot whereon the eye can rest, 

No man, no beast, no bird to gaze upon, 

Can all be dead, with silent sleep possessed? 

Oh, how I long the hills and vales to see, 

To find myself on barren steppes were bliss. 

I peer about, but nothing greeteth me, 

Naught save the ship, the clouds, the waves' abyss, 

The crocodile which rushes from the deeps; 

The flood foams gray; the whirling waters reel, 

Now like its prey whereon at kist it sweeps, 

The ocean swallows up the vessel's keel . 

The billows rage exult, oh soul of mine, 

Soon shall thou enter the Lord's sacred shrine! 



Thy undefilecl clove, 

Thy fondling, Thy love. 

That once had, all blest, 

In Thy bosom her nest 

Why dost Thou lorsake her 

Alone in the forest? 

And standest aloof, 

When her need is the sorest? 

While everywheie 

Threatens snare; 

Strangers stand around her, 

And strive night and day 

To lead her astray, 

While in silence she, 

In the dead of night, 

Looks up to Thee, 

Her sole delight. 

Dost Thou not hear, 

Her voice sweet and clear: 

Wilt aye thou forsake me? 

"My darling, my One! 

And I know that beside Thee, 

Redeemer, there's none!" 


How long will Thy dove 
Thus restlessly rove 
In the desert so wild, 
Mocked and reviled? 
And the maid-servant's son 
Came furiously on, 
Dart after dart. 
Pierced through my heart, 
Horrid birds of prey 
Lie soft in my nest, 
While I, without rest, 
Roam far, far away . 
And still I am waiting 
And contemplating; 
And counting the days, 
And counting the years, 
The miracles ceased 
No prophet appears; 
And wishing to learn 

* Translated by Prof. E. Lowenthal. 



About Thy return. 

And asking my sages: 

"Is the end drawing nigh?" 

They sadly reply: 

'That day and that hour 

But to him are known . 

And I know that beside Thee, 

Redeemer, there's none!" 


And my wee, cooing dear ones, 

The bright and the clear ones, 

Were dragged in their slumbers 

By infinite numbers 

Of vultures so horrid 

To cold climes and torrid, 

Far, far away. 

And those birds of prey 

Try to render them faithless, 

And make them give up 

Thee, their sole Hope! 

To turn their affection 

From Thee, O Perfection! 

Thou Friend of the Friendless! 

Thou Beauty endless! 

Ah, where art thou? 

My Darling, My One ! 

My foes are near, 

My Friend is gone. 

Fainting in sorrow, 

I'm here all alone. 

And I know that beside Thee, 

Redeemer, there's none! 


Oh, hasten, my Love, 

To Thy poor, timid dove! 

They trample with their feet me, 

They laugh when I mourn; 

There's no friend to greet me, 

I am all forlorn! 

My foes in their passion, 

And wild frantic ire, 

Employ sword and fire, 

And all kinds of tortures, 

And know no compassion 

They drive from land to land me: 

There's none to befriend me. 

The stars there on high 

Hear me silently moan. 

And I know that beside Thee, 

Redeemer, there's none! 




Didst Thou reject me? 
Dost love me no more? 
Didst Thou forget all 
Thy promises of yore? 
Oh, rend Thy heavens ! 
Oh, come down again! 
My enemies may see 
That I, not in vain, 
Have trusted in Thee. 
As once upon Sinai, 
Come down, my sole Dear 
In Thy majesty appear! 
Hurl down from his throne, 
The maid-servant's son! 
And strength impart 
To my fainting heart, 
Ere sadly I wander 
To the land unknown. 
For I know that beside Thee, 
Redeemer, there's none! 

Noble Ha-Levi, poet by the grace of God 
humbly we implore thy pardon for so feebly 
speaking of thee and thy glorious work! Would 
that we had the gift to speak of thee as thou de- 
servest. Fill us thou sweet singer of Israel, with 
poetic instinct, and fill us, too, with thy religious 
zeal and fervor. Fill us with such a love for 
Israel and her cause, that we too might as thou 
didst toil for the of our people and our God. * 

"Oh! city of the world, most chastely fair; 

In the far west, behold I sigh for thee, 

And in my yearning love I do bethink me 

Of bygone ages ; of thy ruined fame, 

Thy vanished splend*or of a vanished day. 

Oh! had I eagles' wings I'd fly to thee, 

And with my falling tears make moist thine earth. 

I long for thee ; though indeed thy kings 

Have passed forever ; what though where once uprose 

Sweet balsam trees, the serpent makt-s his nest ; 

Oh' that I might embrace thy dust, the sod 

Were sweet as honey to my fond desire." 

* Translated by Mrs. Magnus. 

The above poetic translations are for the most part selected from "Songs of a Se. 
mite" by Miss Emma Lazarus. 





We must devote some little space and time to 
a review of the place the Moors and the Jews 
held in philosophy during their stay in Spain 
from the eight to the fifteenth century. The pur- 
pose of this work makes this review necessary. 
Not that we shall see any wonderful advance in 
this department of learning, nor that we need 
show the glaring contrast between the sophis- 
tical cobwebs of the cotemporaneous scholastics 
and the rational researches of the Moorish and 
Jewish philosophers, but that we may see what a 
debt of gratitude modern philosophy owes the 
Jew and Moor, for taking up the thread of phil- 
osphical research where Greek intelligence had 
been forced to leave it, and for carrying it for- 
ward sufficiently for modern philosophy to build 


upon it, as a superstructure, the theories and 
systems ot to-day. 

To fully understand their place in philosophy 
it is necessary for us to retrace our steps in his- 
tory some 2,000 years, and enter the city of 
Alexandria. Here Alexander the Great had es- 
tablished his seat of government. It became the 
intellectual metropolis of the world. Thither the 
conqueror brought the wealth and learning of the 
globe. Into that city the people streamed, or 
were brought as prisoners, from the remotest: 
corners of the known world, from the Danube to 
the Nile, and from the Nile to the Ganges. For 
the first time in the world's history, there could 
be found in one city, men who could speak learn- 
edly of the Borean blasts of the countries beyond 
the Black Sea, and of the simoons of the Oriental 
deserts, of pyramids and obelisks and sphinxes 
and hieroglyphics, of the Persian and Assyrian 
and Babylonian wonders, of the Chaldean astron- 
omers, of hanging gardens, aqueducts, hydraulic 
machinery, tunnels under the river-bed, or of the 
Assyrian method of printing, on plastic clay. 
For the first time in the world's history seekers 
after knowledge could listen, in the Serapion of 
Alexandria, to learned discussions between Jew- 
ish monotheists and Persian dualists and Grecian 
polytheists and Egyptian mysticists and- Indian 
Brahmanists and Buddhists, and between the 
Ionics and Pythagoreans, and Eleatics and the 
Atomists and Anaxagoreans, and the Socratists, 
and Platonists and Aristotelians and Stoics and 
Epicureans and Neo-Platonists. No age or 


city had ever furnished better opportunities for 
intellectual pursuits. No city could ever before 
this, point to kings more enthusiastic for the pro- 
motion of learning than were her Ptolemys, nor 
could all antiquity boast of a library equal to hers, 
or of a museum asjustly celebrated for its botanical 
gardens and astronomical observatories and ana- 
tomical college and chemical labratory, 

A prodigious stimulus was thus given to learn- 
ing, and it has left its impress upon the world's 
civilization. Here Euclid wrote the theorems 
which are still studied by the college students of 
to day. Here Archimedes studied mathematics 
under Conon. Here Eratosthones made astron- 
omy a science. Here Ptolemy wrote his "Syn- 
taxes." Here Ctesibius and Hero invented the 
steam engine. Here true philosophy flourished, 
and for the first time, too, in the world's history. 
The people of the Orient had dabbled in specu- 
lative thought before this, but the results achieved 
showed that the Oriental mind is not adapted to 
abstract reasoning. The luxurious habits and 
voluptuous surroundings and tropical climate of 
the Orient tend more toward poetry, music and 
love and languor than toward psychical contem- 
plations. The awe-awakening phenomena of 
nature, which confront the Oriental everywhere, 
naturally lead him to accept as a priori princi- 
ples what the philosophers of the Occident make 
the subject of endless, and for the most part, in- 
comprehensible and unsatisfactory systems of 

It is for this reason that the great religons 


of the world sprang- from Oriental soil, while the 
great philosophical systems took roots in Western 
lands. Yet, up to this period, not even the 
West, with all its labors, had sounded the depths 
of true philosophy. The entire pre-Socratic phi- 
losophy wasted its energies upon the futile effort 
to find some principle for the explanation of 
nature, which to the Hebrew mind had been solved 
thousands of years before in the opening verse of 
the Bible. One thought it to be water; another. 
air; and a third an original chaotic matter. The 
Pythagoreans declared that number is the es- 
sence of all things, and the Eleatics believed they 
were nearer the truth by negating all division in 
space and time. The Atomists endowed each 
atom with gravity and motion, and accounted 
thus for the origin of all physical existences and 
states. Socrates and Plato both came much 
nearer to the solution of the problem; the former 
postulated self-knowledge as the starting point of 
all philosophy, and the latter combined all pre- 
ceding systems into one scheme, with an infi- 
nitely wise and jiist and powerful spirit as its 
guiding principle, but idealistically only, The 
additional realistic view of things had not yet been 
reached, and could not be reached, for that de- 
pends upon universal and exact and scientific 
knowledge, which prior to the great age of 
Alexandrian learning, to which all ages and 
climes and nations contributed their experiences 
and observation and knowledge, had never yet 
existed. Aristotle, the teacher of Alexander, 
and the friend of Ptolemy, thus found through 


Alexandrian influence, opportunities for philo- 
sophical reasoning, which necessarily gave his 
system an almost inestimable advantage over his 
predecessors. From the study of particulars he 
rose to a knowledge of universals, advancing to 
them by induction. This inductive method was 
grounded upon facts of his own experience and ob- 
servation, as well as those of others, whom the in- 
tellectual metropolis had sent into Greece. He 
oecame the first and best absolute empiricist. His 
system acquired an encyclopedic character. He 
became the father of logic, natural history, em- 
pirical pyschology and .the science ot rights. 
Aristotelian philosophy became the intellectual 
corner stone on which the Museum rested, and is 
to-day, through Jewish and Moorish influence, as 
we shall presently see, the corner stone of mod- 
ern philosophy. 

The Jewish community of Alexandria was very 
large. When Alexander founded this city and 
gave it his name, he wished to secure for it per- 
manent success, and so he brought them thither 
by the thousands. Ptolemy brought 100,- 
ooo more, after his siege of Jerusalem, and Phil- 
adelphus, his successor, redeemed from slavery 
198,000 Jews, "paying their Egyptian owners a 
just money equivalent for each." Alexander's 
expectations were realized; the city of his name 
led the world in commerce and intellect. With 
an enthusiasm almost bordering on passion the 
Hebrews devoted themselves to philosophy, es- 
pecially to Aristotelian philosophy. They in- 
grafted it upon their own theology and philo- 


sophic speculations, some going even so far as 
to believe that Aristotle must have been a Jew 

Henceforth Aristotelian philosophy is Jewish 
philosophy. The occasional acceptance of the 
Neo- Platonic mysticism, theosophy and theurgy, 
was unable to obliterate it. 

During seven centuries learning flourished in 
the city of Alexandria, zealously fostered by na- 
tive Egyptian. Greek and Jew. A new power 
arose Christianity. At once it recognized in 
Aristotelian philosophy an inimical foe, and be- 
gan its work of suppressing rational research and 
free thought. The rest we need not relate. We 


know what happens when Christianity institutes 
inquisitors of faith instead of inquirers of learn- 
ing. We know what happens when Christianity 
uses power instead ot argument. That day, 
when the beautiful and young Hypatia, perhaps, 
the most accomplished woman that has ever 
lived, the popular lecturer of Platonic and Aris- 
totelian philosophy at the Museum, where her 
lecture room was crowded daily, with the wealth 
and intellect of Alexandria; that day, when this 
most noble of women was assaulted by Bishop 
Cyril's fanatical and bloodthristy monks, when 
she was dragged by the followers of the "religion 
of love," from her chariot, stripped naked in the 
street, pulled into the church, where she was cut 
to pieces where her flesh was scraped from the 
bones with a shell and the remnants cast into fire; 
that day marked the extinction of Alexandrian 
learning it marked the extinction of Athenian 


learning. Science, so successful, died the death 
of strangulation, and the expounders of Aristot- 
elian philosophy were silenced, and their literature 
condemned to the pyre. 

But Aristotelian philosophy was not yet dead. 
The Jews still lived, and with them the works of 
Aristotle. They had succeeded in concealing 
translations and original copies of his works from 
the fanatical champions of ignorance. They had 
absorbed it into their system of thought. They 
had used it in their commentaries upon their 
Scriptures. They had saturated their very 
prayers with it. They had sought to reconcile 
Jewish theology with refined heathen philosophy. 
Whither they wandered, it wandered, and where 
they were permitted to study there also was Aris- 
totelian philosophy studied. What they had long 
wished was granted them at last. They became 
the restorers of philosophy in Europe. Moorish 
and Spanish prosperity afforded them the oppor- 
tunities for an uninterrupted study and develop- 
ment of the Aristotelian philosophy. Soon the 
Moor shared their enthusiasm. The caliphs sent 
special messengers to secure whatever of Aris- 
totelian philosophy had escaped the mob of "St. 
Cyril." * 

Many were they, both Jews and Moors, who 
devoted themselves to this philosophy, and vast 
the systems they unfolded. The wonderful ad- 

* Cyril has the title ot "St." now; when first we met him, instigating 
his monks to kiM the learned Hypatia, he was only Bishop Cyril. That 
noble and humane act together with his commendable zeal for throttling 
science and rational research has won for him the honored title of "St." 


vance they had made in the sciences, and in the 
other branches of learning, enabled them to en- 
large upon the teachings of Aristotle. New facts 
and new experiences and new observatious led 
them to new and advanced inductions. However 
great the tempations be to enter into some anal- 
ysis of their philosophical system, we must not yield 
to them; that is not the object of this review. 
Our design is to show what influence Moorish 
and Jewish learning exercised upon European 
civilization. We have seen its impress upon the 
sciences and literatures of Europe, and its impress 
is visible still on modern philosophy. * From 
all parts of the world persons having a taste for 
philosophy found their way to the Moorish and 
Jewish sages of Spain. Gerbet himself, later 
Pope Sylvester II., had repaired to Cordova and 
Seville to hear Moorish and Jewish philosophers 
expound the mysteries of wisdom and philosophy, 
and so illustrious an example soon became the 
raging fashion among European scholars. As if 
desirous of dividing the honors equally, both the 
Moors and the Jews sent at the same time, a rep- 
resentative champion into the philosophical arena 
who, by their united labors, not only demolished 
scholasticism but also laid the permanent founda- 
tion of modern philosophy. The representative 
philosopher of the Moors was the great Averroes 

* As a careful study of Eisler's "Vorlesungen Ueber Jueclische Phil- 
osophic des Mittelalters," and Kenan's "Averroes et Averoisme," and 
Joel's "Verhaltniss Albert des Grossen zu Moses Maimonides," and 
"Spinoza's Theolgo-Poiitischer Traktat auf Seine Quellen's Geprueft," 
and Haarbruecker's translation of Schahrastani's "Religions Partheien 
Philosophen-Schulen," will readily prove. 


(Ibn Roshd, 1 149-1 198) whose name still occu- 
pies an honored place upon the pages of history 
of philosophy, and whose system, bearing his 
name Averroism is still recognized among the 
philosophical systems of the world. The repre- 
resentative Jewish philosopher was the great 
Moses Maimonides, (i 135-1204) the greatest Jew- 
ish philosopher the Jews have ever produced, and 
one of the greatest the world has seen to this 
day, whose philosophical system, unfolded in his 
"More Nebuchim," ("Guide for the Perplexed") 
still remains truly, grandly immortal. 

For several centuries the Moorish and Jewish 
philosphy was the delight of such men in whom 
Spanish learning kindled a desire for deeper re- 
search and loftier thought than Europe had hith- 
erto offered. Even many of the schoolmen 
shared this enthusiasm. But this very enthusi- 
asm was the deathblow to scholasticism. Once 
imbued with Moorish and Jewish empirical phil- 
osophy and inductive reasoning, the rational 
mind could no longer pursue the sophistic teach- 
ings which the church held up as the divine wis- 
dom. That philosophy shook the old faith to its 
very root, produced new predispositions and pre- 
pared the way for the coming change. It weaned 
men from simply believing the church's "say-so" 
and taught them to think, and when men began 
to think scholasticism ceased, and the Reforma- 
tion began, and with it modern thought. No 
longer would the rational mind believe that leg'- 
ends and miracles can decide such questions as 
are the starting point of philosophic thought. No 


longer would they endure the preposterous teach- 
ing the product of ignorance and audacity 
that the faith of the church is absolute truth; that 
faith is greater than knowledge; that a thing may 
be theologically true even though it be philosoph- 
ically false. No longer would they disgrace 
themselves with continuing to waste time and 
parchment with discussions and treatises such as 
these, to which the schoolmen of several centu- 
ries devoted hundreds of volumes: "How many 
choirs of angels are there in heaven, how do 
they sit and upon what instrument do they play?" 
"To what temperature does the heat rise in hell?" 
"Wherein lies the difference between 'consub- 
stantiatio and transubstantiate' ?" "What kind of 
feathers had the angel Gabriel in his wings? 
What kind of a swallow it was that caused Tobias' 
blindness? Whether Pilate washed his hands 
with soap before he condemned Jesus? Whether 
it was an adagio or allegro which David played 
before Saul? What sort of salve it was which 
Mary brought to the Lord? Whether the coat 
for which the soldiers cast lots constituted the 
entire raiment of the Redeemer? Whether the 
valley of Jehosophat is large enough for the 
world's judgment day?" and so on ad nauseam. 
A schism arose. The indignation of St. Thomas 
Aquinas, the leader of the Dominicans, knew no 
bounds when he beheld Christians drinking in, in 
full draughts, Moorish and Jewish philosophy. 
The Franciscans opposed him and every effort of 
his to suppress their writings. The conflict lasted 
till 1512, when the Lateran council condemned 


"the abettors of these detestable doctrines to be 
held as heretics and infidels," and the Dominicans, 
armed with the weapons of the Inquisition, were 
not slow to silence Averoism in Europe. 

But though silenced it lived in Jewish philoso- 
phy, and that, as little as its Talmud and Bible 
no power on earth has ever been strong enough 
to silence. Though silenced, with the aid of the 
Jews it flashed forth to all parts of Europe, where 
it found its way as readily into the "Opus Majus" 
of Roger Bacon as into the curriculum of stu- 
dies of the University of Padua. Though silenced, 
it permeated the Renaissance. Though silenceu, 
it formed the groundwork of Spinoza's system. 
Though silenced, with the aid of the Jewish phil- 
osophers, who laughed the Inquisition to scorn, 
it was studied everywhere, and everywhere it 
assumed those gigantic proportions destined to 
illumine the intellect of Europe. Though si- 
lenced, with the aid of the Jewish philosophy it, 
ushered in modern philosophy and the civilization 
of to-day. 





Hark! Again the doleful knell is tolling. With 
greater speed and in larger numbers the people 
are hurrying to the public square, The proces- 
sion of priests, chanting hymns of victory and im- 
precatory prayers, is starting towards the auto-da- 
fe. The victims supplicate for death more pite- 
ously than before. Hark! Again, and with great- 
er alarm, the agonized voice of civilization calls 
unto us: Haste ye, the furnaces are heated! The 
pyres are prepared! The massive gates of the 
gloomy inquisition dungeons are open. The in- 
struments of torture are ready for the cruel work 
of death. Haste ye, the moments are few, gather 
whatever knowledge there still remains to be col- 
lected concerning the wondrous achievements of 
the few and Moor, as speedily as you can; tarry, 
and flame and sword and rack and expulsion will 
hurl all knowledge of it into oblivion forever! 


Let us heed the warning and briefly state what 
yet remains to be told. You have 'ere this sur- 
mised what we are about to prove, the imperisha- 
ble monuments which the Moors and Jews have 
erected to their name and fame in the arts and 
sciences, in literature and philosophy bear witness, 
not only to their great intellectual wealth, but al- 
so to vast material possessions. Wherever learn- 
ing is zealously fostered there wealth exists, and 
where wealth abounds, there agriculture and 
commerce and industry must have had prior exist- 

Thus it was in Moorish Spain. Never before, 
nor ever since, did Spain enjoy a prosperity equal 
to that which blessed her lands, when Moorish 
and Jewish skill and diligence and enterprise made 
her, in glaring contrast with the rest of Europe, 
the granary and the industrial and the commercial 
center of the world. We have not yet forgotten how, 
when in the introductory chapters of this volume, 
we thought ourselves back some eight or ten cen- 
turies in the world's history, and hastened across 
the wild Atlantic to learn of the condition of Eu- 
rope and her people, how spell-bound we stood, 
as we suddenly beheld wonders and beauties 
in Spain, scarcely equalled to-day in all Europe. 
And when we reflected upon the present condition 
of Spain, among the poorest of all European 
countries, its people proverbially indolent and 
ignorant, we had to assure ourselves, again and 
again, that it was Spain, indeed^ which suddenly 
disclosed to us these unexpected, and still un- 
equalled, proofs of industry and learning and 


cultured taste. Nor have we yet forgotten, when 
gliding upon the majestic Guadalquivir along fertile 
valleys, and luxuriant fields and graceful groves, 
and fragrant parks, and glittering palaces, and 
busy factories, and restless mines, we passed out 
of Spain, and visited the other countries of Europe 
how dreary and wretched and appalling the scenes 
were which met our gaze everywhere. Scarcely 
a city anywhere. Nothing that could, even with 
the broadest stretch of leniency, be designated as 
agriculture. Everywhere pathless deserts and 
howling wastes, and death-exhaling swamps. 
Wretched, windowless and chimneyless and floor- 
less hovels sheltered man and beast under the same 
roof. Everywhere men with squalid beards, and 
women with hair unkempt and matted with filth, 
and both clothed in garments of untanned skin, that 
were kept on the body till they dropped in pieces 
of themselves, a loathsome mass of vermin, stench 
and rags. Everywhere beans and vetches and 
roots and bark of trees and horseflesh furnished 
largely the means of supporting life. Nowhere 
even a trace or semblance of industry. Every- 
where the word commerce an unintelligible term. 
Such was the condition of the rest of Europe when 
Spain was basking in the sunshine of a most 
wonderful state of prosperity under the skill and 
enterprise of the Jew and the Moor. 

From the very first both directed their attention 
to agriculture. The fertile valleys and the luxu- 
riant fields, and the vine-clad hills, and the fruitful 
orchards, and the flowry meads and the sweet- 
scented pasture lands of Palestine bear eloquent 


testimony to Jewish skill in agriculture. The ad- 
vice which the prophet Jeremiah had sent to the 
Jewish captives of Babylon : "Build ye houses, 
and dwell in them, and plant gardens and eat the 

fruits of them and increase in your captivity 

and not diminish. Seek the welfare of the city 
whither you are carried as captives, and pray unto 
the Lord for it ; for in the welfare thereof shall ye 
prosper and have peace."' This excellent advice 
the Jews applied to themselves, and faithfully fol- 
lowed, wherever they lived in exile, and wherever 
they were suffered to dwell in peace and promote 
the country's welfare. The Arab-Moors were no 
less devoted to this noble pursuit. When their 
warfare was over they beat their swords into plow- 
shares, and their spears into pruning knives. Their 
motto was : "He who planteth and soweth, and 
maketh the earth bring forth fruit for man and 
beast, hath done alms that shall be reckoned to him 
in heaven." These two races devoted themselves 
to the cultivation of Spain with their hereditary 
love for the occupation, and with the skillful appli- 
cation of the experience, which they had gathered 
in other lands where they had dwelled or where they 
had established their power. By them agriculture in 
Spain was carried to a height, which until the in- 
vention of machinery was not surpassed in Europe. 
As early as the tenth century the revenue of agri- 
culture of Moorish Spain alone amounted to nearly 
$6,000,000, more than the entire revenue of all the 
rest of Europe at that time. The ruins of their 
noble works for the irrigation of the soil, thei r 

* Jeremiah xxix : 5-8 


great treaties on irrigation and crops, and im 
proved breeds of cattle, on grafting and gardening, 
and their code of laws regulating agriculture, which 
still exist, still attest their skill and industry and 
put to shame the ignorance and indolence of their 
Spanish successors. Many plants were introduced 
in Europe, and successfully cultivated by them, 
which, after the expulsion of the Jews and Moors, 
and the discovery of America, Spain lost and 
neglected, such as rice and sugar cane (soukhar, 
as they called it, saffron and mulberry trees, ginger, 
myrrh, bananas and dates. The Spanish names 
of many plants show their origin, and some have 
traveled even to us, such as the apricot, from 
"albaric ague," the artichoke from "alca chofa" 
coton from "#/ godon." * They gave Xeres and 
Malaga their celebrated wine, which has maintained 
its reputation to this day. 

The mining industries, too, were zealously 
fostered by them. Spain was and is a widely < 
metalliferous country. Her hidden treasures were 
known already to the Phoenicians, Carthagenians (J 
and Romans, and were mined by them with great 
profit. The gold and silver of Solomon's temple 
come through Hiram of Tyre from Tarshish, which 
was Southern Spain. But the dark ages had set 
in and with them Europe's universal sloth. When 
the Moors entered Spain the ancient mines had 
been, for the most part, abandoned. They re- 
vived this industry, and with a zeal which may best 
be told by the existence to-day of 5,000 Moorish 
shafts distinguished from the former by being 

* "Christians ^nd Moors of Spain," by C. M. Yonge, chapter x. 


square instead of round in one district (Jaen) 
alone gold was found in large quantities, and it 
was one of their leading articles for manufacture 
and export. They gave us the Arabic word 
"carat" which we still use in speaking of the 
quality of gold. They opened the inexhaustible 
vein of mercury which they worked with great 
profit and with such skill, that it still forms the 
largest deposit in the world, yielding still one-half 
of the quicksilver now in use, and being a govern- 
ment monopoly, this one remnant of Moorish 
and Jewish skill and industry, alone, still produces 
an annual revenue of $1,2 50,000. In addition to 
these, lead, copper, iron, alum, red and yellow ochre 
were mined in great quantity. Precious stones 
also were in great abundance the beryl, ruby, 
golden marcasite, agates, garnets. Pearls were 
found on the coast near Barcelona. Building 
stones, marbles, and jaspers of all colors, were un- 
interruptedly quarried in the mountains. 

The manufacturing industries kept pace in their 
success with that of mining and agriculture. With 
the Jews a knowledge of silk culture came into 
Europe, and with the assistance of Moorish skill it 
became one of the leading industries and one of 
the most profitable exports. All Europe, and the 
greater portions of Asia and Africa, looked to the 
Jews and Moors of Spain for their fine fabrics of 
silk and cotton and woolen, for all the wonders of 
the loom and the skilful and delicate patterns of 
filigree work in gold and silver. The carpet 
manufacture of the Moslems reached the excellence 
: which it has maintained to our own day. 


They made glass out of a silicious clay and used 
it for fashioning vessels, and also in glazing those 
beautiful tiles for which Valencia is still famous i ' 
called azulejos, which they employed in embelish- . 
ing floors and wainscoting. The best leather was 
made by the Jews and Arab-Moors in Cordova, 
and hence Spanish leather is still called Cordovan, 
which has given to English shoemakers their name 
of "Cordwainers." The still celebrated "Morocco" 
leather the secret of its manufacture having been 
carried to Morocco, after their expulsion from Spain, 
speaks to this day of Moorish and Jewish skill 
in this branch of industry. The "Toledo Blade," 
famous in the past and famous still, the invention 
of, and the plentiful and lucurative manufacture of 
cotton and linen paper, that blessed boon to civili- 
zation, which alone made the printing press possi- 
ble and beneficial, the introduction of gunpowder 
and artillery, of the magnet and the mariner's 
compass, of mechanical and scientific apparatus and 
instruments, these and many more still speak in 
eloquent terms of Moorish and Jewish industry in 
Spain, and, more eloquently still, they tell the 
tale of Spanish ingratitude. * 

*For details see Copee's "Conquest of Spain, " volume II chapter VIII 
and Prescott's "Ferdinand and Isabella," volume I, chapter VIII. 

The Jews were the most skillful physicians, the ablest financiers, and 
among the most profound philosophers; while they were only second to 
the Moors in the cultivation of natural science. They were also the chief 
interpreters to western Europe of Arabian learning. But their most im- 
portant service, and that with which we are now most especially concern- 
ed, was in sustaining commercial activity. For centuries they were its 
only representatives. By travelling from land to land till they became in- 
timately acquainted both with the wants and the productions of each, by 
practising money-lending on a large scale and with consumate skill, by keep- 
ing up a constant and secret correspondence and organising a system of ex- 
change that was then unparalled in Europe, the Jews succeeded in mak- 


This diligence and success in agriculture and in 
the industries made commerce necessarily very 
active and lucrative. The ports swarmed with 
vessels of traffic. The Jews and Moors of Spain 
maintained a merchant marine of thousands of 
ships. They had their factories and warehouses 
and consuls in all centers of industry. Their ex- 
ports were very large. 

The Jews, who had been compelled to wander 
the wide world over had acquired a most perfect 
geographical knowledge, which was serviceable 
to them now. It was through them that the 
existence of the Cape of Good Hope was made 
known in Europe. It was through Averroes that 
the attention of Columbus was drawn to his subject 
of finding a short route to the Indies. Their com- 
merce opened the tide of discovery by navigation. 
Moorish and Jewish industry sought foreign mar- 
ing themselves absolutely indispensible to the Christian community, and 
and in accumulating immense wealth and acquiring immense influence in 
the midst of their sufferings. When the Italian republics rose to power, 
they soon became the centres to which the Jews flocked; and under the 
merchant goverments of Leghorn, Venice, Pisa, and Genoa, a degree of 
toleration was accorded'that was indeed far from perfect, but was at last 
immeasureably greater than elsewhere, (From Lecky's "Rationalism in 
Europe," part II, Chapter VI.) 

From the port of Barcelona the Spanish khalifs had carried on an 
enormous commerce, and they with their coadjutors Jewish merchants 
-had adopted or originated many commercial inventions, which, with 
matters of pure science, they had transmitted to the trading communities 
of Europe, The art of book-keeping by double entry was thus brought into 
Upper Italy. The different kinds of insurance were adopted, though strenu- 
ously resisted by the clergy- They opposed fire and marine insurance, on 
the ground that it was a tempting of Providence. Life insurance was 
regarded as an act of interference with the consequences of God's will. 
Houses for lending money on interest, that is, banking establishments, 
were bitterly denounced, and especially was indignation excited against 
the taking of high rates of interests, which was stigmatized as usury a 
feeling existing in some backward communities up to the present day. Hills 
of exchange in the present form were adopted, the office of the public no- 


kets and found them, too, from the Azores to the 
interior of China, from the Baltic to the coast of 
Mozambique, and eventually from the kingdom of 
Granda to the new world. Granada, especially in 
the words of the historian, became the common 
city of all nations. The reputation of its citizens 
for trustworthiness was such that their bare word 
was more relied on than a written contract is now 
among us, to which a Catholic bishop adds : 
"Moorish integrity is all that is necessary to make 
a good Christian."* 

*Conde's "History of the Arabs of Spam," volumn III, chapter XXVI. 

tary established, and protests for dishonored obligations resorted to. In" 
deed, it may be said, with but little exaggeration, that the commercial 
machinery now used was thus introduced. (Draper's "Conflict be- 
tween Religion and Science," Chapter XI, pg. 317 318) 

"The isolation in which the Jews were forced to live, and the prohibitions 
long continued, against acquiring real estate, directed their speculations 
toward commerce and manufactures, in which they soon obtained incon- 
testable superiority. . . . Nothing is more curious to study than the com- 
mercial condition of that nation which had no territory of its own, nor 
ports, nor armies, and which, constantly tacking about on an agitated 
sea, with contrary winds, at last arrived in port with rich cargoes and 
immense wealth . The Jews traded because it was rarely permitted them to 
employ themselves in any other way with security. While the multiplicity 
of toll-houses and the tyranny of the feudal lords rendered all trade im- 
possible except that of the petty tradesmen of the market-towns and 
cities, the Jews, more bold, more mobile, were dreaming of vaster opera- 
tions, and were working silently to bind together continents, to bring 
together kingdoms. They avoided the highways and the castles, care- 
fully concealing their real opulence and their secret transactions under 
the appearances of poverty. They went great distances for rare products 
of the remote countries, and brought them within reach of well-to-do 
consumers. By wandering about and traveling from country to country 
they had acquired an exact acquaintance with the needs of all places ; 
the\v knew where to buy and where to sell . Some samples and a note- 
book sufficed them for their most important operations. They corre- 
sponded with each other on the strength of engagements which their 
interest obliged them to respect, in view of the enemies of every sort by 
whom they were surrounded. Commerce has lost the trace of the in- 
genous inventions which were the result of their efforts ; but it is to their 
influence that it owes the rapid progress of which histore shows us the 


The position of the Moors and Jews of Spain in 
the industries may, therefore, be briefly summar- 
ized thus, a prosperous state of commerce arose 
never known before, and in the southern part of 
Europe never equalled since. Farther and farther 
this commerce pushed its interests, and more and 
more busy became the industries at home, and great- 
er and greater grew their opulence. Gradually the 
rest of Europe awakened from its lethargy. Moor- 
ish and Jewish toil infused life and ambition into 
its people. Italy, Portugal, France and England 

briliant phenomenon in the midst of the horrors of feudal darkness. 
Inslensibly, the Jews were absorbing all the money, since this was the 
kind of property which they could acquire and keep safely. . . . For 
more than five hundred years, it is in the history of that nation that we 
must study the progress of commerce and the more or less venturesome 
attempts through which it has risen to the rank of political power. . . . 
The Jews were the depositaries of the finest cloths known, and they traded 
in them at immense profits : they extended the use and at the same time 
the demand for them into castles and into abbeys. They also engrossed 
the trade in jewelry and in gold and silver bullion . Feudalism disturbed 
these lucrative occupations less than one might suppose : the lords put 
upon them strict conditions, but they had the good sense to treat them 
with respect. Besides in the midst of the general terror which continually 
hovered around all highways and all travelers, the Jews, armed with 
safe-conducts, traveled all over Europe without inquietude, and in the 
tenth and eleventh centuries disposed like sovereigns of all the com- 
merce of France. At that period, they had already gieatly simplified 
commercial proceedings, and their correspondence would have done honor 
to the most able merchants of our great cities. 

The appearance of the tradesmen of Lombardy, Tuscany, and other 
parts of Italy completed the work of the Jews and gave an energetic im- 
pulse to the commerce of the middle ages. The latter, from that time, 
traded in everytning, and put in circulation real and personal property, 
such as horses, lands and houses. The historian Rigord goes so far as 
to say that the Jews were, at that time, real proprietors of half the king- 
dom. . . . It is also claimed that it was at this time that the first Bills 
of Exchange appeared, the invention of which some trace to about the 
seventh century, and others, only to the middle of the twelfth. It is a 
point which has not yet been cleared up, and which is not of so much 
consequence as some have supposed. The date of such a discovery, 
even if it could be authentically fixed, would be of interest simply as a 
matter of curiosity; but it appears destined to remain forever in doubt. 
It is thought, and with reason, that the invention is rather due to the 


began to compete. New markets became neces- 
sary. New discoveries followed, and with the 
general activity and prosperity which ensued, and 
the learning which it fostered, it dispelled the 
mists of ignorance, the middle ages disappeared and 

Italian traders than to the Jewish brokers of this time, the latter nothav 
ing had occasion as soon as the others to devote themselves to trade be- 
tween different places, which probably suggested the idea. The very 
name of Letter ot Exchange, which was primitively Italian, seems to indi- 
cate their true authorship; and the first city where they were used, Lyons, 
then the entrepot of Italy, is a further indication. It is probable that the 
Lombards and the Jews had an equal part in inverting them, and divin- 
ed, from the beginning, the important consequences from theiruse. * * 
These ingenious contrivers later entered into a strife, and the hist< ry of 
the Italian republics of the middle ages is full of the debates which arose 
between them on the subject of privileges which some wished to exercise to 
the exclusion of others. We see the Jews become intendants, stewards, 
procurators, bankers, and even agents in marriages, according as they are 
more or less forcibly driven from all the regular commercial positions by 
the bulls of the Popes or by the jealousy of competitors. Everything 
thus contributed to narrow them down to a vicious circle, from which 
they can only escape by usury and money negotiations. When envy 
has forced them to abandon a city, the interest of the inhabitants calls 
them back; their capital has become so necessary to their industrial cities 
that the orders of the authorities are disregarded to prevent the Jews 
carrying it elsewhere. Moreover, soon houses for loaning money are 
started even in the villages; and the Jews of Tuscany direct from a cen- 
tral point a multitude of branch-houses of their establishments at Flor- 
ence and Pisa, Their opulence and their magnificence surpassed imagi- 
nation, and aroused against them fanatical adversaries. VYe know the 
history of that famous Bernardin de Feltre, who carried his enthusiasm 
so far as to preach a crusade against them, and who on every occasion 
showed himself their most implacable enemy . He pursued them every- 
where as usurers thirsting for the blood of the people, and, to ruin their 
establishments, he conceived the idea of opposing them by the formation 
of those houses of loaning on pledges, which are called monts-de-piete. 
At the beginning, everything was free in them, and the sums lent were 
without interest. Morever, their success was prodigious, and most of the 
cities of Italy had their monts-de-piete, which were one day to surpass in 
usurious exactions the boldest operations of the Jews. . . . However 
these monts-de-piete could not fill the place of the establishments of the 
Jews, and this circumstance proves with what shrewdness the latter had 
truly divined the wants of the money circulation. Although \hzmonts-de- 
piete loaned money almost without interest, the formalities which it was 
necessary to undergo in order to have a right to their help, the inevita- 
ble delays in their administration, the necessity of proving the legitimate 
possession of the articles pledged, and above all, the obligation on the 


modern history made its appearance upon the 
world's stage. So glorious was the result of 
Moorish and Jewish industry. How Europe re- 
warded them in return for all their Inbors, let the 
followiug chapters speak. 

part of depositors to make known their names, soon kept away borrow- 
ers, who could obtain funds at any time, in secret and without formali- 
ties, from the Jewish bankers. Rich and poor, lords and villeins, has- 
tened to them, and their credit was so great at Leghorn, in the times of 
the Medicis, that the saying became proverbial: "// is better to beat the 
Grand-duke than a y^w." Pope Sixtus-Fifth had opened again to them 
all the sources of wealth which his predecessors had closed; their goods 
were even exempt from every toll, the sacra monte del/a pieta censed to 
compete with them, when the Christians in charge had surpassed the 
abuses of their rivals. After ten years of its existence, the wonts-de- 
plete had become what they are to-day, open pits under the steps of mis- 
fortune rather than asylums to escape it. ... Everything then seems 
to warrant the belief that the Jews exerccise a notable influence on the 
course of political economy in Europe, by keeping in charge, in the 
midst of feudal anarchy, the commercial traditions destined to become 
perfected and refined in the atmosphere of the fifteenth century. It is to 
the persecutions of which they were victims that we are indebted for the 
first attempts at credit and the system of circulation. They alone, per- 
haps, by concentrating on trade in gold and silver an attention whicn 
the prejudices of their contemporaries prevented them from giving to 
anything else, prepared the way for the great monetary revolution which 
the discovery of the mines in America and the establishment of European 
banks were to accomplish in the world. Thus the luminous trace of the 
future shines and is preserved, in the midst even of the darkest events. 

"History of Political Economy in Europe," by Jerome Adolphe Blanqui 
Chap, XV. 





Physical decline follows mental advance. The 
nation that is devoted to learning is not the nation 
that worships a military life, or the pursuits of 
warfare. VVhen the Mohammedans started on 
the enterprise of acquiring vast territorial posses- 
sions, there were few nations, if any, that could 
stand before them; when they were bent upon 
making intellectual acquisitions, there was no milit- 
ary body in Europe so poor that could not over- 
throw them. The military and patriotic virtues of 
the Arab-Moors had slowly passed away. Their 
original simplicity had been replaced by the ex- 
travagance of Oriental luxury, and their early de- 
votedness to the Moslem faith had suffered much 
from their philosophical and scientific researches. * 

* Coppee's "Conquest of Spain," Vol. 1, Chap. \f, pp. 441-2. 


Internecine wars among themselves hastened their 
decline. Faster and faster their once invincible 
power slipped from their hands. Faster and fas- 
ter advanced the Spanish hosts. Arab- Moor and 
Spanish Christian met at last on the plains of 
"Las Navas," (1213) and the great defeat which 
the Moslem army sustained here marked the be- 
ginning of the fatal hour. City after city, pro- 
vince after province, they were forced to yield. 
At last, all was lost, save the city of Granada, 
which stood alone to represent the Moham- 
medan dominion in the peninsula. And, for a 
time, it seemed as if that noble city, the city of 
the Alhambra, the pride of the Moors, would 
not only represent the Mohammedan dominion, 
and stay the victorious advance of the Spanish 
hosts, but also regain all that had been lost. 

But the ancient valor was aroused too late. 
Ferdinand, of Aragon, had married Isabella, of 
Castile. Two of the most powerful crowns and 
armies were united, and unitedly they marched 
against the city of Granada. 

Granada surrendered. On the second day of 
January, 1492, the last and ill-fated king of the 
Moors, Boabdil (Abu Abdillah,) met Ferdinand 
and his party at the entrance of the Alhambra, and 
presenting the keys of the city, thus he spoke in 
a loud voice and in sad accents: 

"We are thine, O powerful and exalted king ; 
these are the keys of this paradise. We deliver 
into thy hands this city and kingdom, for such is 
the will of Allah: and we trust thou wilt use thy 
triumph with generosity and clemency." 


"We trust thy wilt use thy triumph with gener- 
osity and clemency." Did Boabdil have a fore- 
boding of the infamous use the victor would make 
of his triumph? Did he really expect that his 
appeal for generosity and clemency would be fav- 
orably answered? If so, poor Boabdil, vain is thy 
hope, foolish thy trust. That hour in which the 
Christian cross replaced the Mohammedan cres- 
cent on the turret of the Alhambra, that hour 
when Christianity ruled again, and alone, in the 
peninsula, marked a climax in the history of cru- 
elties and human sufferings. That hour, though 
the brightest in the reign of Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella, was most fatal for Spain, most pitiful to Eu- 
rope, most unfortunate for civilization, and most 
calamitous for the Jews. 

During all these unfortunate years of struggle 
for supremacy between the Mohammedan and 
Christian hosts the Jews were not forgotten. Sad 
as was the lot of the Moors, that of the Jews were 
inexpressibly more miserable. The Moors were 
conquered by soldiers, the Jews by monks. The 
Moors fought against the military of Spain, the 
Jews were inhumanly slaughtered by the "militia 
of Christ." The Moors suffered the pangs of war, 
and the Jews writhed in agony under the tortures 
of the Inquisition. 

Inquisition! Who can utter the execrable word 
without a shudder! Who can think of this blood- 
thirsty institution without heaving a sigh of relief 
that it lasts no longer! What Jew can think of it 
with dry eyes, without lifting his heart to God in 


thanksgiving that this blood-reeking tribunal is 
no more! 

Inquisition! Who knows its meaning better 
than the Jews? What people brought greater 
sacrifice to its bloody altars than they? Who has 
described it better than the Jew, Samuel Usque, 
the Jewish poet, whose lyre was silenced, and 
whose life was tortured out of his body by that 
very institution which he so eloquently and truth- 
fully describes? "From Rome," he says, "a beast 
most monstrous, most ferocious, and most foul 
has come into our midst. Its very appearance 
strikes terror into every soul. When it raises its 
piercing, hissing, seething voice all Europe trem- 
bles. Its body is made of a composition of the 
hardest of steel and the deadliest of poison. In 
strength, in capacity for murder, in size and in 
speed it excels the fiercest of lions, the most pois- 
onous of serpents, the tallest of elephants, and 
the speediest of eagles. Its very voice will kill 
quicker than the bite of the basilisk. Fire issues 
from its eyes, its jaws breathe forth flames. It 
lives from human bodies only. Wherever it 
comes, and though the sunshine in its noontide 
brightness, the densest darkness will at once set 
in. In its presence every blade of grass, every 
flower and blossom and tree, all wither and perish. 
Wherever it passes its pestiferous stench changes 
fertile valleys and luxurious fields and laughing 
meadows into unproductive deserts and howling 
wastes. Its name is The Inquisition" 

It was born in the early par of' the thirteenth 
century. Fanaticism was its mother; its father 


was St. Dominic, who also was the father of the 
Dominican Order, and so the Inquisition 
and the Dominican friars were natural brothers, 
and % par nobile fratrum," a noble pair of brothers 
they were. Pope Innocent III. stood godfather to 
it. I fully sympathize with all past and present 
humanitarians in their efforts to wean men from the 
pernicious belief in the existence of Hell, but I can 
not accept their claims that Hell never existed. 
Hell did exist, not 10,000 leagues beneath the 
earth, but on its very face. Hell existed wherever 
the Inquisition lived. And Devils there were, too. 
and their names were "Dominican Monks." This 
ferocious beast-child came into this world with a 
mission: to detect, punish and suppress Heresy, 
Free Thought, and every Religious belief save that 
of the Church of St. Peter. Under Dominican 
nursing and training, it grew and prospered, and 
rapidly acquired a relentless exercise of its 
mission. Its heart was killed, its conscience stifled. 
It was never taught the meaning of the words pity 
and mercy. 

Scarcely was it full grown when it initiated its 
bloody career of 600 years of accursed life by a 
most cruel reign of terror in the southern provin- 
ces of France, where the presence and strength of 
the heretical Albigenses and where the Moorish 
and Jewish civilization from across the Pyrenes 
had made themselves felt. The reign of terror 
ceased with the extermination of almost the entire 

At last it found its way into Spain, and in that 
country it entered upon a career so infamous that 


its deeds of ferocity, recorded upon the annals 
of History in letters of blood and fire, are not 
eclipsed by the combined cruelties of all mankind. 
Here lived and prospered thousands and thousands 
of Jews. When a holy war is waged against the 
infidel Moors shall the infidel Jews escape un- 
scathed? When the Blessed Virgin crowns their 
zeal to their faith by giving them victory after 
victory over the Moors, will she not be wroth if the 
Jews escape? When the Moors are put to the 
edgfeof the sworcl, shall the Jews not be committed 

O * 

to the flames? 

The cruelties of the Inquisition were not the 
first which were visited upon the jews. Their 
second series of suffering in Spain began on the 
day when the Christian forces defeated the Moor- 
ish army upon the battle-field. The tolerance the 
Moor coulcl afford to offer to the Jew, the Re- 
lio-ion of Christ could not. In Ara^on and Castile 

o ^ 

it was not a rare sight to see the fanatical populace, 
stimulated by the no less fanatical clergy, to 
make a fierce assault upon this unfortunate people 
guilty of no other crime than that of promoting 
the prosperity of Spain and of adhering to their in- 
herited belief, breaking into their houses, violat- 
ing their most private sanctuaries, and consigning 
them by the thousands to indiscriminate massacre, 
without regard to sex or age. Hatred of the Jews 
was for many centuries a faithful index of the 
piety of the Christians. Cruel laws were enacted 
against them. They were prohibited from ming- 
ling freely with the Christians, from following the 
trades and professions for which they were best 


suited by virtue of their high intelligence and 
thrift. Their residence was restricted within 
certain prescribed limits of the cities which they 
inhabited. They were held up to continuous 
public scorn, by being- compelled to wear a peculiar 
dress, on which was sewed their badge of shame. 
Even in their executions they were branded, for 
a long time they were hanged between two dogs, 
and with the head downwards. 

A choice was given them to escape these suf- 
ferings and degradations by entering "the religion 
of love unto all men." Thousands upon thousands 
of Jews availed themselves of this only alterna- 
tive, and became feigned converts, or "new Christ- 
ians," as they were called. They amply regretted 
the change later, but at present it seemed to them 
an almost justifiable step. The preceding chapters 
have acquainted us with the character of the 
Spanish Jews, with their high intellectual attain- 
ments, with their lofty demeanor, with their high 
social and political and industrial and commercial 
standing. Think of them now asked to sacrifice 
all these advantages, because the iron-handed 
and iron -hearted brute force of the priests so 
wanted it. Feel as they must have felt, when they 
were asked to exchange their mansions of ele- 
gance and refinement for the wretched hovels of 
the Ghetto; to lay aside their garments of silk, 
and their ornaments of grace and beauty and 
costliness, and don the gaberdine of disgrace; 
to drop the reins of the world's commerce which 
they held in their hands, and, instead, take a pack 
upon their back and wander from house to house, 


an object of ridicule and shame, and jeers and 
maltreatment. Think as they must have felt and 
thought and you will think less harshly of their 
feigned change of faith. 

For a time all seemed bright. The "converts" 
were especially honored. They were appointed 
even to high ecclesiastical and municipal offices; 
their sons and daughters married into noble, and 
even royal families. 

The few drops of baptismal water did not, how- 
ever, change the character of the Jews. Their 
prosperity was as great as before, and, unlike the 
credulous and superstitious Spaniards, they failed 
to see any reason why they should lavish their 
wordly goods upon the Church. They preferred 
to do their own "taking care of," and their own 
"praying for" their soul. This was their crime. 
Their superior skill and industry, and the superior 
riches which these qualities secured, and their 
high standing in the community, aroused the 
priesthood's envy aud covetousness. Thus the 
charge arose that the converts had relapsed into 
their old faith. 

The charge was not unfounded, The allegiance 
to the Church was that of compulsion, and it never 
was anything else, except a masked external allegi- 
ance. The heart, soul, conscience, mind, con- 
tinued Jewish, and as fervently so as ever before. 
This "scandalous spectacle of apostates returning 
to wallow in the ancient mire of Judaism," was 
the pretext by means of which the Dominicans 
sounded the alarm. And the Inquisition came to 
cure them of their back-sliding. 


Castile, the kingdom of Isabella, had till then 
refused admission to the Inquisition. At one time 
its introduction was recommended, and the whole 
populace arose in rebellion. Isabella herself 
trembled at the very mention of it. But in an 
evil hour Thomas de Torquemada, "condemned 
to infamous immortality by the signal part which 
he performed in the tragedy of the Inquisition," 
became her confessor. That man if "man" I 
ma)' name him that vilest blot upon the history 
of religion, of Spain, of civilization, was the fiend 
incarnate. His very name still re-presents the 
superlative of maniacal fanaticism. He labored 
hard to infuse into the pure mind of the noble 
hearted Isabella a fanaticism as fiendish as was 
his. And still she recoiled from the thought of 
introducing the monstrous slaughteringinstitution 
in her domains. Torquemada brought the weight 
of the entire church to bear upon her conscience, 
and still she refused. The fiend was not yet 
baffled. He influenced her husband, the crafty 
and greedy Ferdinand of Aragon, to advocate his 
cause. The husband prevailed. 

On the 2nd day of January, 1481, the Inquisition 
commenced operation in the city of Seville, 
with Thomas de Torquemada as Inquisitor Gen- 
eral of Castile and Aragon. A few years later 
it found its way into every prominent town of 
Spain, and confined itself every where almost wholly 
to the Jews. The severity, and savage alacrity 
of it, may best be learned from the appalling fact 
that during the eighteen years of Torquemada's 
ministry an average of more than 6,000 convicted 


persons suffered annually from this cruel tribunal 
by burning, or by condemnation to life long slavery, 
or by endless torture, making an average of near- 
ly seventeen a day, and the entire number pun- 
ished during its existence in Spain, from 1481 to 
1808, amounted to 340,000 persons.* 

All this to protect the interests of religion. All 
this for offenses so trivial that our blood boils 
with indignation at the very thought of the heinous 
cruelty. It was sufficient to burn a "convert," as a 
relapsed heretic, upon the mere accusations ot 
crimes such as these: That he wore better clothes 
or cleaner linen on the Jewish Sabbath than on other 
days of the week; that he had no fire in his house 
on the Jewish Sabbath; that he ate the meat of ani- 
mals slaughtered by Jews; that he abstained from 
eating pork; that he gave his child a Hebrew 
name and yet he was prohibited by law, under 

*There is a Roman Catholic periodical entitled La Handera Catliolica 
(The Catholic Manner) which is published in Marcelona, Spain; and on 
July 29th, 1888, it published an article which caused one almost to lliink 
he was living in the sixteenth instead of the nineteenth century. 
The writer of the article imagines the burning stake is a thing of the 
near future. He says. "Thank God, at 'ast we have turned toward the times 
when heretical doctrines were persecuted as they should be, and when 
those who propagated them were punished with exemplary punishment. 
* * The establishment of the Holy Tribunal of the Inquisition must 
soon take place. Its reign will be more glorious and fruitful in results 
than in the past, and the number of those who will be cnllcd to suffer 
under it will exceed the number of the past. Our Catholic heart over- 
flows with faith and enthusiasm, and the immense joy which we experience 
as we begin to reap the fruit of our present campaign exceeds all Imagin- 
ation. What a day of pleasure will that be for us when we see the 
masons, spiritualists, fre; thinkers and anti-clericals writhe in the 
flames, of the Inquistion!" 

We also read in another article of the same Roman Catholic paper 

that dining the time of ihe existence of the Inquisition, from 1-1S1 to 1SOH 

in Spain alone there were #5,534 men ami women burnt alive, r.nd, 

93,53?$ condemned to other punishments, because they differed in 

opini on trom the Romish Church. 


severe penalties, from giving a Christian name 
that on the Day of Atonement he had asked for- 
giveness; that he had laid his hands in blessing 
upon his child's head, without the sign of the cross, 
and numerous others, equally as harmless. Most 
of the charges did not even prove a relapse their 
observance being, for the most, either purely acci- 
dental or the result of early habit, or, what was 
most frequently the case, pure invention. Xo 
better chance existed for wreaking vengeance, on 
a Jew. A simple accusation, even anonymously, 
sufficed. For the accused there was no safety 
against malice; no facing the accuser, who per- 
haps, was his bitterest enemy; no trial; no cross- 
examination ; nojustice. He was put under arrest 
and conveyed to the secret chambers of the In- 


quisition, where, cut off from the world, he re- 
mained, sometimes for months, in complete ignor- 
ance of the nature of the charges preferred against 
him. Once there, the famous words of Dante 
may be well applied to him: "Lasciate ogui 
speranzc I'oicJi cntrate" "All hope abandon, ye 
who enter here." 

At last he would be summoned before the In- 
quisitors and asked to confess. And well for 
him if he plead guilty. It is true, he will be con- 
victed, but he has escaped the tortures which are 
well nigh beyond the power of endurance, and 
which will soon force a confession, true or not true, 
or which, even if endured, cannot save him, as he 
will nevertheless be convicted on the strength of 


positions of the accuser. 


I shall spare you a recital of the tortures, of the 
sufferings endured in the deepest vaults of the 
Inquisition, where the cries of the victims could 
fall on no ear save that of the tormentors. It is 
difficult to realize that these iron-hearted and 
iron-handed henchmen, who thus eagerly, passion- 
ately, with a thirst for blood that knew no 
mercy, with zeal that never tired, devoted their 
whole life to cruelties such as we encounter here, 
could have been human beings, much less minis- 
ters of Christ. I shall spare you and spare my- 
self a recital of these sufferings. I shall not speak 
of the tortures by rack and rope, and fire and 
water, how the victims' joints were dislocated, how 
every bone in their body was broken, how the 
body was roasted over a slow fire. I cannot 
speak of these tortures. I can only refer you to 
"The History of Tke Inquisition" by Don Juan 
Antonio Llorento, whose records are authentic, 
as he himself was Secretary to the Inquisition; 
or to Mosheim's "Ecclesiastical History" or to 
Prescott's "Ferdinand and Isabella" volume I. 
chapter VII. To endure all these tortures, and 
live, was thought positive proof of Satanic life, and 
the strongest ground for burning. Nearly all 
plead guilty to whatever they were accused of, 
and to more, too, after a short experience with the 
rack. And confession brought public burning. 

This was the last scene in the bloody tragedy, 
so wrongly named "Auto De Fe" ("Act of Faith"). 
It was a gala day for the town in which it was 
enacted. The proudest grandees of the land acted 
as escorts to the ecclesiastical henchmen. The roya 


party seldom missed this pompous ceremony, 
and not infrequently heaped fagots on the blaz- 
ing fire with their own hands. A military escort 
led the unfortunate victims, clad in coarse yellow 
garments called "san benitos" garnished with a 
scarlet cross, and with hideous figures of devils 
and flames of fire. And a horrible appearance 
they presented, emaciated, lacerated, crippled, 
dazed by the light and fresh air which had been 
denied them for months. 

The pyre is lighted. The flames shoot up. 
The victims writhe in agony. 

Lo ! a fierce wind arises. For a moment it 
blows the flames from the bodies. One of the 
victims speaks. It is Antonio Joseph, the Jewish 
celebrated author and classical dramatist of Portu- 
gal, where the performance of his dramatic pieces 
draws tears even to this day. Thus the vener- 
able sage speaks: 

"I own I belong to a faith which you yourselves 
acknowledge to be of Divine origin. God loved 
this religion, and He, according to my belief, is 
still attached to it, while you think He has ceased 
to be so; and because your belief differs from 
mine, you condemn those who are of the opinion 
that God continues to love what He formerly 
loved. You demand that we should become 
Christians, and yet you are far from being 
Christians yourselves. Be at least men, and act 
towards us as reasonable as if you had no religion 
at all to guide you and no revelation for your en- 
lightenment." "Osscitaro barbaro" ("clip his 
beard"), some of the spectators shout, and im- 


mediately one of the executioners besmears his 
venerable beard, by means of a long brush, with 
pitch and turpentine, and sets fire to it. One 
more cry, "Sh'ma, Yisrael, Adonay Elahenu, 
Adonay Echad" ("Hear, O Israel, the Eternal, 
Our God is One"), and the flames have done their 
work, amidst the rapturous applause of the spec- 
tators, and amidst the pious ejaculations : ' ' Blessed 
be forever the goodness and mercy of the Holy 
Inquisition. Blessed be the Holy Trinity, the 
sister of the Virgin Mary." Not a tear among 
the spectators. Father, mother, husband, wife, 
child, relatives, friends, all are eye-witnesses to 
this bloody sacrifice, and yet from them not a sigh 
of regret, nor dare they be absent, nor dare they 
abstain from applauding, that would fasten sus- 
picion upon them, and condemn them to a similar 
fate. A confiscation of the convicted possessions 
ended the mournful tragedy. 

Such was the clemency and generosity for 
which Boabdil, the last of the Moorish kings, en- 
treated. Praised be God, now and forever, who 
has emancipated us from the clemency and gen- 
erosity of the Church. 



Auf dem Platze St. Domingo, 
Vor cler grossen Klosterkirche, 
Harrt gespannt die wueste Menge, 
Auf die Scheiterhaufen blickend. 

Aus den Fenstern lugen Frauen 
In den hellsten Festgewaendern, 
Und es blit/en die Juwelen, 
Um den Gottestag zu ehren. 

Gilt es doch Antonio heute, 
De sie ihren Plautus heissen, 
Gilt es doch dem fruehern Liebling 
Letzte Ehre zu erweisen. 

Der beschuldigt eines Rueckfalls 
In den alten Vaterglauben 
Ihn will nun das Volk verlauegnen, 
Ihn im Flammentode schauen. 

Er, der sie mit seinem Spiele 

Oft geruehret und ergoetzet, 

Heute wollen die Gemeinen, 

An ihm selber r ich ergoetzen. 

Horch! schon toent die duestre Glocke, 
Welche grauenvoll verkuendet, 
Dass die Stunde war gekommen 
Fuer den unbeugsamen Suender. 

Alles gafft jetzt nach der Strasse, 
Welche zu dem PJatze fuehret 
Und mit Schaekern und mit Spaessen 
Sucht man sich die Zeit zu kuerzen? 


Schau! da kommen sie die Schwarzen, 
Die den Koenig stolz umgehen, 
Schau! da kommen auch die Frevler, 
Welche heute man verbrennet . 

Demuthsvoll ist ihre Haltung, 
Und mit flehentlichen Mienen 
Suchen sie wohl noch Erharmen, 
Ob sich nicht noch Mitleid finde? 

Nur Antonio schreitet sicher 
Und gefasst zur Richtestaelte, 
Ob er auch im Hesserkleide 
Und sein Antlitz abgehaermet . 

Nochmals wiederholt cler Keonig 
Zarte Worte an den Dichter, 
Dass er noch in lelzter Stunde 
Seiner Seele Heil gewinne . 

"Loes dich los von jenen Schaaren, 
Die gekreuzigt den Erloeser, 
Loes dich los von den Verstockten, 
Deren Weg nur fuehrt zur Hoelle!" 

"Wenn" entgegnet sanft Antonio, 
"Wenn" in Gottes Plan gelegen 
Seines Sohnes Kreuzesleiden, 
Um die Menschen zu erloesen. 

Warum basset ihr clann Jene, 
Die den Gottesplan vollzogen? 
Warum hasset ihr dann Jene, 
Die gethan was Gott gewollet?" 

Wohlgeneigt vermmmt der Koenig, 
Wie der Dichter ihm erwidert, 
Und es schien sein Herz zu ruehren, 
Als er auf Antonio blickte. 

"Deine Rede lass ich gelten 
Und vergeben sei den Moerdern, 
Doch, nun glaub' auch an den Meister, 
Wolle dich uns zugesellen." 

Aber unser Dichter wuerdigt 
Nun den Koenig keiner Rede, 


Da sich seine Seele ruestet, 

Vor den Herrn der Welt zu treten. 

Wuethend riss man von den Fingern 
Ihm die Haul und dann die Naegel, 
Still erduldet er die Qualen, 
Lasst die Henker still gewaehren . 

Eh' den Holzstoss erbestiegen, 
Wendet er sich zu dem Volke, 
Seinen Glauben zu verkuenden, 
Zu lobinsgen seinem Gotte. 

"Ew'ger Hort, dein Thun ist grade; 
Recht sind alle deine Wege, 
Dir allein will ich vertrauen, 
Meine Seeie dir emptehlen, 

Du, vollkommen, ohne Zweiten, 
Warst noch eh' die Welt erstanden, 
Und in alle Ewigkeiten 
Wird regieren nur dein Name! 

Hoert mein letztes Wort, ihr Tauben, 
Hor' es, Israel, mein theures; 
Unser Gott, er ist der Ew'ge, 
Unser Gott ist ewig. einzig!" 

Wie empor die Flammen zuengeln, 
Wie empor sie knisternd flackern, 
Abzuwehren mit dem Tuche. 
Sucht Antonio die Flammen. 

Da taucht einer jener Henker, 
In das Pechfass einen Besen, 
Kreist ihn um den Bart Antonios 
Fuer die gluehend muth'ge Rede. 

Wie der Schrei die Luft durchzittert! 
Wie jetzt selbst das V^olk erbebet! 
Schauer malet jedes Antlitz, 
Dem noch eigeti eine Seele. 

Wer sind jene beiden Frauen . 

Die verzweiflungsvoll sich krummen? 


Ach, es ist Antonios Gattin! 
Ach, es ist Antonios Mutter! 

Die man teuflisch hat gezwungen, 
Diesem Schauspiel beizuwohnen, 
Ob vielleicht ihr Sinn sich aendre 
Vor dem Zorngerichte Gottes? 

Jetzt sieht man auch Maenner weinen, 
Und beim Fortgeh'n sprach ein Alter: 
"Wahrlich, der gleicht jenen Helden, 
Die fuer ihren Glauben starben. 

Ob man sie an's Kreuz geschlagen, 
Oder ob man sie vergiftet, 
Dieser Mann steht neben Jenen, 
Die man feiert und verhimmelt." 

fener Bau der Glaubensrichter 
Ist verschwunden von dem Boden 
Lissabons und ein Theater 
Hat die Staette sich erkoren. 

Hoheitsvoll blickt auf Domingo 
Dieer heitre Musentempel, 
Der den Lorbeer ewig wahret 
Allen, die gedient dem Schoenen! 











With tearful eyes and bleeding heart we have 
seen portrayed the mournful and tragic fate of 
the Jews and Moors in Spain. We were unwill- 
ing eye-witnesses to sufferings and cruelties, which 
we knew had never been equalled, and thought 
could never be surpassed. We thought we had 
seen the climax of maniacal fanaticism. We 
thought well might Thomas de Torquemada re- 
cline now beneath the laurels of infamous im- 
mortality he had won for himself, and henceforth 
concentrate his frenzied zeal upon religious efforts, 
less iron-hearted and less murderous. We 
thought now that Spain had completely van- 
quished the Moor, had degraded the Jews, had 
successfully taught the "convert" Jews a most 
"burning" love for the Christian faith, by means of 
the Inquisition's pitiless,slaughtering tribunal, now 
that greed and bigotry and viciousness and 


ambition had been satiated, we thought Ferdinand 
and Isabella would halt in their unpitying and un- 
merciful career, would pause long enough to gaze 
upon the terrible calamities they had inflicted 
upon the realm and upon innocent people, and 
would hasten to amend their ways, and repair 
their great wrongs. 

It was natural for us to think so. It is the ex- 
perience of mankind that reaction accompanied by 
remorse, ever follows close upon the heels of 
rampant fury; that generosity and clemency, how- 
ever fiercely the infuriated storms had lashed them 
into savage atrocity, will seek and find again their 
unruffled calm. It is therefore we stand aghast 
at beholding the next brutish inhumanity of 
Torquemada. Of a truth, he is not man but fiend, 
for to him principles which guide the actions of 
human beings are not applicable. For him there 
exists no reaction and no remorse, no generosity 
and no clemency. Where the most cruel of 
the cruel tremble at the mere thought, he executes 
sportively and in cold blood. Where others rest 
their blood-reeking weapons in the belief that they 
have reached, at last, the summit of crime, he 
heartlessly advances as upon mere stepping stones 
to far greater cruelties to come. He knew why 
he apprehended assassination now. He knew 
why he secured an escort now of fifty horse and 
two hundred foot. He was about to perpetrate a 
crime that should throw into the shade all that he 
had enacted hitherto. 

The fate of the Moors had been decided. The 
Inquisition thinned the ranks of the"convert" Jews. 


The unconverted Jews, they that had preferred 
degradation to baptism ; they that had preferred to 
take up their wretched abode as degraded out 
casts in the prescribed outskirts of the cities, to 
feigning adherence to a faith which their hearts 
hated; they that had sacrificed with singular 
resignation all that honest toil had honestly 
secured, and donned the garberdine of disgrace, 
and followed the degrading vocations enforced 
upon them by cruel laws, and suffered everywhere 
meekly unprovoked jeers, insult, outrage, 
assault, these must be dealt with now. 
Torquemada was resolved, and with him resolve 
was equal to execution, that in Spain the sun 
should shine upon none but pure Catholics, that 
the atmosphere of Spain should no longer be pol- 
uted by the presence of Jews; that none but 
"pious" Christians should tread upon its holy soil. 
He resolved upon expelling the Jews forever. 
They had long clogged the wheels of his triumphal 
car. He knew that there was a secret commun- 
ion between "converted" and unconverted Jews. 
He knew that i^ was mainly due to their religious 
influence that the convert Jews relapsed again into 
Judaism. He knew that they provided spiritually 
and physically for the poverty-stricken and branded 
families of those of their race, whom the Inquisi- 
tion burned, and whose possessions it confiscated. 
He knew that, despite rigorous measures and 
Dominican spies, converted and unconverted Jews 
met in subterranean caverns, and counseled and 
worshipped together, and comforted each other. 
He hit upon a cure at last. He knew a 


remedy that would remove the clog forever. 
He counselled immediate expulsion of all uncon- 
verted Jews. 

In the year 1492, in the year in which Colum- 
bus discovered a new world, in the year in which 
the Jewish sailor of Columbus' crew first set foot 
upon the virgin soil of the western Hemisphere,* 
strange fatality, in the same year that Spain opens 
domains vast, destined to become the land of the 
free, the blessed haven for the politically and racially 
and religiously persecuted; in the same year, the 
year 1492, she opens her portals at home, only to 
thrust out, mercilessly, brutally, hundreds of 
thousands of unoffending, industrious, intelligent 
people, closes the gates behind them, and keeps 
them barred nigh unto four hundred years. 

On the 30th of March, 1492, the edict for the 
expulsion ,of the Jews from Spain was signed by 
the Spanish sovereigns at Granada. Torquemada 
had triumphed. He had conquered the scruples 
of king and queen and Grandees. The edict, 
schemed and defended by him, had passed, and 
the faithful execution thereof he took upon him- 
self. Heralds proclaimed from the street corners of 
every hamlet and village and city of Spain, that 
all unconverted Jews,of whatever sex or age or con 
clition, should depart from the realm before the ex- 
piration of four months, never to revisit it, on any 

*The first Jew came to America with Christopher Columbus. His 
name was Louis de Parres. He was one of the 120 companions of 
Columbus, and the only one, who understood the Shenutic languages. 
He and Rodrigo de Gerez were the first white men whom Columbus set 
on shore. (See "Geschichte des Zeitalters der Entdeckungen von Prof 
Sophits Ruge.) 


pretext whatever, under penalty of death, that all 
who should remain in the realm after the expiration 
of the four months would be put to death, as also all 
such Christian subjects, who should harbor, succor, 
or minister to the necessities of any Jew, after the 
expiration the term limited for his departure; that 
the Jews dispose in the meanwhile of their 
possessions as best they can, but are prohibited, 
under penalty of death, from having gold or silver 
in their possession at the time of their departure. 

Unfortunate Jews! It was an idle hope when, 
seeing the sky lurid from the burning of your 
brethren upon the quemaderos (places of burning 
heretics), you thought that the cup of yourafflictions 
was full at last. It was an idle hope, when, think- 
ing of the invaluable services you rendered unto 
Spain, you thought her people could not possibly 
visit still greater calamities upon your innocent 
heads. Unfortunate Jews! Ye thought not of 
Torquemada, the fiend, when you fondly nursed 
these hopes. 

When the edict was read from the corners of 
the streets and from the cross-roads, as the words 
that convey the sentence of death, strike terror in 
the heart of the condemned: 

"So on the hearts of the people descended the words of the speaker. 
Silent a moment they stood in speechless wonder, and then arose 
Louder and ever louder a wail of sorrow and anguish." * * 

Longfellow" 1 's "Ev 

Maddening thought. Frenzied they rushed to 
and fro. Cries of terror and despair pierced the 
air. The Sierra Morena to the South, and the 


Pyrenees to the North re-echoed the heart-rending 
wailing of the stricken ones. 

Whither shall they flee? What country will 
dare offer them hospitable shores, when the great- 
est power in Europe thrusts them out helplessly, 
defencelessly, with a brand of infamy upon their 

Maddening thought, to go forth as exiles from 
the land of their birth, from their sweet domestic 
hearths, where they were wont to sit and tell of 
their long and proud and glorious past; to go 
forth from Spain, whose very soil seemed holy 
in their eyes; to leave Spain, that had been their 
fatherland for 1 500 years, and more, long before 
the race of their present persecutors had heard 
of it, or had yet been civilized; to leave behind all 
that is near and dear to the human heart; the 
home of their proud achievements; the soil that 
held the graves of their own relatives and friends 
and of their illustrious sires, whose names had 
shed a brilliancy of light, that illuminated the dark- 
ness of their ages, and all the ages since; to leave 
Spain, whose very name was rapture to their souls; 
to leave it, never to return again ; to leave home, 
possessions, friends, and go forth into the very 
jaws of death on, ye Dominican fiends; slay 
them at once. If die they must, let them breathe 
their last upon the soil, which, next to Palestine, 
they worshipped most, but thrust them not out to 
perish in foreign lands. 

Nay, we cannot conceive, to-day, the terror 
of this edict. Imagine, forbid it God the very 
thought makes us shudder imagine that an edict 


were suddenly to be issued that the 300,000 Jews of 
the United States such was the number of the 
Jews of Spain should be exiled from this country 
after the expiration of four months, never to re- 
turn again ; imagine such a calamity to befall us here, 
where our past is not yet a century old, and where 
the memories and associations of the past are not 
so deeply rooted as were those of Spain; imagine 
that we were told to go forth, branded with infamy, 
to cope, helplessly and clefencelessly,and hopeless- 
ly with a hostile world; told to leave behind all 
that honest toil had gained for us; imagine 
that we had to assemble at the sea coast on 
a given day, to be packed into ships, like 
so many cattle, wives torn from husbands, babes 
from mothers, brothers from sisters, and then 
carried off, thousands of us to be hurled into the 
foaming deep, thousands to perish from want 
and exposure and cruelty, thousands to be disem- 
barked upon uninhabited islands to be left a prey 
to wild beasts and starvation, thousands to be 
dropped on foreign shores, only to meet with still 
greater cruelties than were hitherto inflicted. 
Picture to yourself, if you can, miseries as terrible 
as these, happening unto us to-day, forbid it 
Heaven! and even then will you only barely 
realize the calamity of this edict. 

The sad fate which awaited the Jews touched 
the hearts of even the Spaniards. A delegation 
of them, including the most powerful grandees of 
the realm, waited upon the sovereigns, and im- 
plored them to revoke the terrible decree. Fer- 
dinand and Isabella turned deal ears to their en- 


treaties. The great Don Isaac Abarbanel, the 
last of the brilliant lights of the Jews in Spain, a 
high officer in the service of Queen Isabella, threw 
himself at her feet, and in heart-rending sobs he 
burst forth: 

"Ask for our life, and it is thine; ask for all our 
possessions, they are thine, but if live we must, 
then, Illustrious Queen, drive us not from off the 
soil of Spain which is dearer to us than our life." 

For a moment her inflexible will wavered, 
another moment, and the mourning of 300,000 
people might have been turned to rejoicing, and 
the doom of Spain might have been averted, and 
the history of Europe might have had a different 
reading to-day. But that other moment was never 
to come. Torquemada, who listened in an ad- 
joining chamber to Abarbanel's tearful entreaty, 
and to the queen's yielding words, rushed into the 
royal presence, almost mad with fury, and point- 
ing to the crucifix, he shrieked: 

"Behold Him whom Judas Iscariot sold for 
thirty pieces of silver ! Sell him now for a higher 
price, and render an account of your bargain be- 
fore God!" 

The fiend had conquered again. The queen is 
on her knees before him, imploring forgiveness 
for her moment's weakness 

A gloom pervaded the entire realm, as the time 
of the departure drew hastily on. The Jews, at- 
tired in the deepest mourning, wandered restless- 
ly about the streets. Peace dwelled no longer in 
their homes. Their fountain of tears had run dry. 
Their words became fewer, and more and more 


painful. When children twined their little arms 
lovingly about their parents' neck, when pining, 
husbands gazed upon their drooping wives, and 
in their mournful silence asked one another: A 
month hence, a fortnight hence, a week hence, 
to-morrow, where will father be? Where will 
mother be? What fate awaits husband, and 
what misery shall fall upon wife? What cruelty 
shall subdue brother, and to what life of infamy 
shall sister be sold? When upon such questions 
they brooded, and when did they not? madness 
seized upon them, and they rushed out to the bur- 
ial places, and there, among the dead, they sought 
the pity and mercy and consolation the living 
could not give; there, in the graveyards, they 
lingered among the tombs of their dear departed, 
sometimes for three or four days in succession, 
not a morsel of food nor a drop of water passing 
their lips. And as they fixed their gaze upon the 
stately palms, that shaded them and the graves of 
their dead, with aching heart they lingered low: 

"More blest each palm that shades those plains 

Than Israel's scattered race; 

For, taking root, it there remains 

In solitary grace; 

It cannot quit its place of birth, 

It will not live in other earth. 

But we must wander witheringly 

In other lands to die; 

And where our fathers' ashes be, 

Our own may never lie." 

Bvron's "Hebrew Melodies.' 1 '' 

Meanwhile the Spanish clergy was not idle. In 
the synagogues, in the public squares, in the open 
streets they preached the Love and Gentleness of 


the Redeemer, and appealed by argument, and 
by foul invectives, to the Jews, to accept the few 
drops of baptismal water, and remain in their 
adored native land. The Jews listened with a 
sullen indifference to these harangues. The suffer- 
ing they endured for their faith convinced them 
more than ever of the absurdity of that religion 
which could inflict such cruelties. The treatment 
which the "convert" Jews received at the hands 
of their "Christian" brethren was surely not such 
as could inspire them with a burning desire for a 
change of faith. Rather exile, separation from 
fond home and fonder family, rather death than 
adopt a faith that fattened on blood and thrived 
on cruelty. "Let us remain firm," they cried to 
cheer on one another, "strong in our faith before our 
God, unyielding before our foes. We will live, if 
we are to live, if we are to die, we will die. Yet, 
living or dying, our covenant let us not desecrate; 
let our hearts never despair,let us never forsake, not 
even in the darkest hour, the living God of Israel." 
Noble sons and daughters of Israel. Ye sainted 
spirits of our departed ancestors of Spain, our 
hearts are filled with noble pride as we recount 
your heroic devotion to our God-given faith. In 
vain we turn the leaves of Historic record to find 
a parallel to your unswerving homage to convic- 
tion. Time can not diminish the lustre of your 
self-sacrificing deeds for the cause of Israel's 
truths. Four hundred years have silently emptied 
into the interminable Ocean of Time, and still 
Jew and Gentile, believer and unbeliever, all who 
worship at the shrine of political and racial and 


religious liberty, name you but to bless you, and 
are themselves inspired to virtue by their very 
breathing of your sainted names and heroic deeds. 

At last the day for their departure arrived, August 
2nd, 1492, the 9th day of Ab. Tisha U Ab, 5252. 
The time had expired July 31, but they had im- 
plored for two days of grace, that this, their great 
calamity, might fall on Tisha b Ab, the 9th of Ab, 
the annual day of fasting, the most calamitous day 
in the history of Israel. 

It was on that day (586 B. C.) that Nebukadnee- 
zar laid the Temple of Solomon in ruins, and led 
the children of Israel from Palestine, as captives, 
to Babylon. 

It was on that day (70 A. C.) that Titus de- 
stroyed the Second Temple, ended forever the po- 
litical power and national life of Israel, and thrust 
the children of Israel from their native soil, the 
sacred soil of Palestine. 

It was on that day (135 A. C.) that the fate of 
the Barkochba revolution was decided, and the 
last hope of Israel for political independence had 
vanished, and vanished forever. 

And it was in the early morning of the same 
fatal day Tisa b ' Ab, 5252, August 2, 1492, that 
the Jews of Spain repaired to their synagogues 
to worship there, for the last time, to sit upon the 
ground, with dust and ashes upon their heads, 
and girded with sack cloth, and read in accents 
sad, in accordance with an old established custom 
n Israel, Jeremiah's "Lamentations' over the de- 
struction of the Temple, over the fall of Jerusalem 
and over the exile of the children of Israel into 


Babylon. They had read the "Lamentations" 
before, they had read them year after year with 
tremulous lips, with accents fervent and deep, but 
they never knew their meaning before. That 
morning the broken heart spoke. And oh, what 
wails of sorrow, what sobs of contrition, what 
passionate out-breaks, as they repeated the verses : 

"How does the city sit solitary, that was full of 
people. How is she become as a widow! she 
that was great among the nations. She weepeth 
sore in the night and her tears are on her cheeks, 
among all her friends she hath none to comfort 
her. Judah is gone into captivity because of 
affliction, she dwelleth among the nations, she 
findeth no rest. Her adversaries are powerful 
her enemies prosper, all that honored her despise 
her. It is nothing to you, all ye that pass by? 
Behold, and see if there be any sorrow like unto 
my sorrow, which is done unto me. Zion spread- 
eth forth her hands and there is none to com- 
fort her. They cried unto them: Depart ye, ye 
are unclean, touch not, when they fled away 
and wandered, they said among the nations: they 
shall no more sojourn there. They hunt our steps, 
that we cannot go into our streets, our end is near, 
our days are fulfilled, for our end is come." 

And forth they went from the house of God, the 
old and the young, the sick and the helpless ; 
virgin and youth, bride and groom, man, woman, 
child, with hearts bleeding, with steps tottering, 
with faces haggard and hollow and wan, with 
figure bent, and spirit broken as they gazed with 
a vacant stare for the last time upon their emptied 


homes upon the desolate scenes of childhood and 

On they went, overwhelmed yet speechless. 
But over them a chorus of martyr spirits, they that 
on that day perished, for their faith's sake, at the 
siege of Nebuchadnezzar, they on that day breathed 
their last for Israel's sake, at the siege of Titus, 
they that on that day had died with the death of 
Israel's hope, at the siege of Julius Severus, over 
the exiles of Spain, these martyr spirits chanted 
with doleful voices: 

"Oh! weep for those that wept by Basel's stream, 
Whose shrines are desolate, whose land a dream; 
Weep for the harp of Judah's broken shell; 
Mourn where their God hath dwelt, the godless dwell! 

And when shall Israel lave her bleeding feet? 
And when shall Zion's songs again seem sweet? 
And Judah's melod) once more rejoice 
The hearts that leaped before its heavenly voice? 

Tribes of the wandering foot and weary breast, 
How shall ye flee away and be at rest! 
The wild dove hath her nest, the fox his cave, 
Mankind their country Israel but the grave." 

Byron's " Hebrew Mtlodies.'* 




Dunkle duestere Gestalten 
Harren muerrisch vor dem Thore: 
,,Heut erfolgt der Juden Auszug, 
Heut ist der Termin verflossen!"i i) 

Boshaft wollen sie sich weiden 
An dem Auszug der Verstoss'nen, 
Und sie grinsen selbstzufrieden 
Ob des Schicksals der Verstockten. 

Einer ist's zumal, dess Grinsen 
Teufelsbosheit von sich lodert, 
Seine Blicke Schlangenblicke, 
Sein Gebiss von Gift gesch wollen; 

Seine Worte Feuerschluende, 
Sein Verlangen Tod und Moder, 
Die Vernichtung seine Tritte, 
Die Verwuestung sein Gefolge. 

Wie sie zischeln die Gestalten, 
Muerrisch harrend vor dem Thore. 
,,Nur Geduld, Dominikaner !" 
Ruft jetzt jener Hoellenbote. 

,,Wie mein Name Torquemada, 
Will ich weiter dafuer sorgen, 
Dass die jetzt das Land verlassen, 
Nicht entgehen sicherm Tode. 

Fast war schon ihr Wunsch erfuellet, 
Zu verbleiben unserm Boden, 
Jener juedische Minister 
Hatte Gold, viel Gold geboten. 


Doch ich eilte zur Alhambra 
Und das Crucifix erhoben, 
Sprach ich zu dem Koenigspaare 
Die entscheidend wucht'chen Worte: 

Judas hat fuer dreissig Muenzen 
Treuelos den Herrn geopfert, 
Und ihr wollet ihn verkaufen, 
Arg geblendet von dem Gclde? 

Nun, so nehmt ihn und verkaufet 
Euren Heiland, wie ihr wollet; 
Hier ist er, o nehmt ihn gierig, 
Wenn's euch duerstet nach dem Golde! 

Diese Rede hat entschieden 
Und ihr werdet heut die Horde 
Aus dem Lande ziehen sehen, 
Bald erscheinen sie am Thore." 

Wie die drei.Dominikaner 
Harrt die Menge vor dem Thore. 
Die in wilder Schadenfreude 
Ob der Judensoehne spottet, 

Torquemada naht der Masse 
Und mit argen, list'gen Worten 
Weiset er auf all' die Schaetze, 
Die den Ausgewies'nen folgen. 

Schelmisch weiss er sie zu hetzen 
Gegen die verfehmten Opfer, 
Und ertheilet mild den Ablass 
Auf das Pluendern auf das Morden. 

Welches Tubeln, welches Wimmern. 
Welches Pfeifen welches Trommelu 
Dringt jetzt aus der Stadt herueber 
Zu der Menge vor dem Thore! 

Aber welcher Schauer fast uns 
Bei dem Anblick dieses Volkes ! 
Sind es Schatten, sind es Geister, 
Die an uns vorueberkommen? 


Starren Blickes, gramvoll keuchend. 
Ihren Ruecken tief gebogen, 
Leichensteine ihre Lasten, 
Moosbewachsen und geborsten. 

Ach, es sind die einz'gen Schaetze. 
Die den Elenden jetzt folgen, 
Zum Gedaechtniss ihrer Ahnen, 
Die da ruh'n in spanischem Boden. 

Taeglich vor dem schweren Auszug 
Weilten sie bei ihren Todten, 
Weinten auf den theuren Graebern, 
Ehe sie von dannen zogen. 

Und sie zogen, wie die Lehrer 
Gottergeben es geboten, 
Dass nicht die Verzweiflung nahe. 
Unter Pfeifen, unter Trommeln. 

Ob auch viele wimmernd klagten, 
Sang man doch zum Lobe Gottes 
Und den tiefen Schmerz erdrueckend 
Riefen sie das Sch'ma Israel ! 

Fast erschrocken von dem Anblick 
Stand die Menge vor dem Thore, 
Mitleid fuellte alle Herzen, 
Und es schwand die Lust, zu morden. 

Kaum gewahrte Torquemada 
Judas wildgehetzte Sprossen, 
Schaeumt er auf im Rachegeifer, 
Und er grollt im finstern Zorne: 

,,Koennt' ich baden in dem Blute 
Der von Gott so lang Verworf nen, 
Sollt' ich auch darin ertrinken, 
Nichts verglich ich solcher Wonne!" 

Also raset Torquemada 
Und er sinket wie ein Todter 
In den Arm der Ordensbrueder, 
Die ein jaeher Schreck getroffen. 


Judas Schaaren zieh'n vorueber 
Unter Pfeifen unter Trommeln, 
Allen Jammer uebertoenet; 
,Jubelt Voelker, unserm Gotte!" 

Aus dem Fieberwahn erwachet 
Torquemada und er tobet: 
,,Seht ihr dort nicht die Gesellen, 
Wie sie spannen ihren Bogen? 

Wie sie nach dem Herzen zielen! 
Helft! sie wollen mich erdrosseln, 
Helft! sie wollen mich vergiften! 
1st das Einhorn nicht am OrtePia)" 

,,Herr des Himmels, sei uns gnaedig!'' 
Rufen die Inquisitoren, 
,,Unser Fuehrer ist von Sinnen, 
Sein Verstand ist ihm genommen!" 

Aus der Feme immer leiser 
Hoert man pfeifen, hoert man trommeln, 
Jubeltoene dringen aufwaerts: 
,.Jauchzet Voelker, unserm Gotte!" 











"The wild dove hath her nest, the fox his cave, 
Mankind their country Israel, but the grave." 

Thus mournfully closed the last chapter. These 
are sad words, fraught with anguish and 
despair, yet however sad, however despondent 
and hopeless, however much of grief, and anguish 
and despair they convey, they befell the Jews of 
Spain, and they fail altogether, when they are 
asked to describe the sufferings and miseries 
which met the unfortunate exiles, everywhere, in 
their fruitless search for a quiet spot where they 
might live or die in peace. Ships stood ready in 
the harbors to carry nearly all of the banished 
300,000 Jews whithersoever it suited the captains 
best. Into these ships the exiles were literally 
packed, crowded together without regard to sex 


or age, often mother torn from child, husband 
from wife, brother from sister, friends from friends, 
and, separated on the coast meant separation for- 

Words and the heart fail me to speak of the 
heart-rending cries of parent for child, and child 
for parent; of husband for wife and wife for hus- 
band; or of the wailing and lamenting, as Spain, 
the land of their birth, the home of their comfort 
and luxury and blessings, slowly faded out of sight 
and finally disappeared beneath the horizon. 

And now begins a chapter in the history of 
Israel's suffering so frightful, so revolting that the 
pen and tongue recoil from dwelling upon it in 
detail. Before these sufferings, all that had been 
hitherto endured, faded into insignificance. And 
again it is avarice, and rapicity that bring these 
miseries upon them. The possession of the gold 
brought on their former sufferings, and now it is 
the want of it that opens their present miseries. 
Thou miserable gold! Whether ally or whether 
foe, ever thou wast the cause of Israel's 
untold sufferings ! Because of thee, they had to 
purchase life, and because of thee they had to 
suffer death! The expulsion edict had prohibited 
the Jews, under penalty of death, from having 
money in their possession at their departure. And 
the Jews obeyed the mandate. What cared they 
for money when they could not enjoy it ii> their 
beloved Spain ? What cared they for enjoyment, 
or even for life, when it was to be lived in distant 
and hostile lands? But the pirate captains and 
their heartless crews felt convinced, that the Jews 


must have large sums of money sewed up in their 
clothes, or concealed on their persons. No sooner 
were they on high sea, when men and women and 
children were ordered on deck, commanded to dis- 
robe publicly, regardless of innocence of youth 
and modesty of sex. Many a virgin and 
many a youth, many a husband and many a 
wife dared to resist, not that they had money con- 
concealed, but for shame sake, and the raging 
billows rocked them into their eternal sleep for 
their resistance. Disappointed in their search, their 
thirst for gold was the more excited. Body after 
body they ripped open, before the eyes of the unfort- 
unate exiles, in the belief that they must have swal- 
lowed their gold and precious jewels. And disap- 
pointed in this, there followed a scene, a more detes- 
table and dastardly one the sun never shone upon. 
When the sailors had finally satiated their brutal 
lusts upon the innocent and helpless, and faint from 
terror and torture, and when the still surviving 
victims had been made to cleanse the ships from 
every trace of the blood of their friends and kin, 
they were seized and dropped into the ocean 
without a pang of conscience, and as unconcern- 
edly as if the great God had created Jews for no 
other purpose but to appease the beastly appe- 
tites of inhuman sailors, and serve as food for the 
fishes of the sea. 

And all this for the glory of Christianity! All 
this in obedience to the teachings of the Church! 
Heaven ! Who can name the crimes that have been 
perpetrated in Thy name? What seas of human 
blood have been shed in the name of Christ, of 
Mercy and Love and Peace and Good Will! The 


Church had steeled the heart against every senti- 
ment of pity and mercy. Feelings of compunction 
of remorse in the perpetration of crimes against 
the Jews, were taught to be the crime, and not 
the crime itself. The tear of sympathy wrung 
out by the sight of Jewish suffering was taught to 
to be an offense to be expiated by humiliating 
penance. Any one, it was taught, might con- 
scientiously kill a Jew wherever he had an oppor- 
tunity. The taste of blood, once gratified, begat 
a cannible appetite in the people, and the more it 
was satisfied the more intense became its thirst 
for blood. Their zeal was not altogether unselfish ; 
every Jew accused of heresy, or killed, cancelled 
so the Church taught for the accuser one hun- 
dred days from his future purgatory punishment. 
Another captain was somewhat more merciful; 
whether he had to expiate some of his tender- 
heartness by humilating penance, ecclesiastical 
history has neglected to record. He set all his 
exiles on the shore upon a desert coast, leaving 
the weak and the suffering pitilessly a prey to 
wild beasts and to starvation. One of these 
unfortunate deserted exiles who survived, tells us 
how he saw his wife perish before his eyes, how 
he himself fainted with exhaustion, and upon 
awakening beheld his two children dead by his 
side. For weeks, roots and grass furnished their 
food. Each day brought fresh miseries and fresh 
graves. These were days such as Shakespeare 
speaks of: 

"Each new morn-- 

New widows howl; new orphans cry; new sorrows 
Strike heaven on the face." 


Mothers, unable to bear the pining of their 
children, struck them dead, and then took their 
own life. Whole families folded themselves in 
loving embrace, and while thus embracing ended 
their life with their own hand. When the wild 
beasts came upon them, the exiles plunged into 
the sea, and stood shivering in the water for hours 
and hours, until the beasts retreated. Wearily 
they made their way onward, until, at last, they 
beheld the joyous sight of human settlements. 
Exhausted, they lay along the coasts, wasted by 
suffering and disease, and half demented from 
starvation. Down to the shore came the priests, 
and holding a crucifix in the one hand, and pro- 
visions in the other, the unfortunate Jews were 
given the choice between Christ and starvation. 
The flesh was stronger than the spirit. They 
begged for the bread, and ate at it ravenously, after 
the few drops of baptismal water had cleansed 
their soul from the foulest stains of infidelity. 
"Thus," says a pious Castilian historian, "thus 
the calamities of these poor blind creatures prov- 
ed in the end an excellent remedy, that God 
made use of, to unseal their eyes, so that, renounc- 
ing their ancient heresies, they became faithful 
fpllowers of the cross." How many hundred days 
of purgatory punishment were cancelled for this 
pious utterance of the Castilian, History again ne- 
glected to record. 

- Another ship load was cast out by a bar- 
barous captain upon the African coast, where the 
African savages pounced down upon them, and 
abandoned themselves to friehtful cruelties. The 



men and youths they sold into slavery, the de- 
fenseless women were brutally ravished; the 
children at their mothers' breasts, the aged and 
the sick and the infirm were mutilated and tortur- 
ed and murdered by the thousands. 

Another ship load landed in the harbor of 
Genoa. A graphic picture of their sufferings is 
given by a Genoese historian, an eye witness of 
the scenes, which he describes as follows: 

"No one," says he, "could behold the sufferings 
of the Jewish exiles unmoved. A great many 
perished of hunger, especially those of tender 
years. Mothers, with scarcely enough strength 
to support themselves, carried their famished in- 
fants in their arms, and died with them. Many 
fell victims to the cold, others to intense thirst, 
while the unaccustomed distress, incident to a sea 
voyage, aggravated their maladies. I will not 
enlarge on the cruelty and the avarice which they 
frequently experienced from the masters of the 
ships which transported them from Spain. Some 
were murdered to gratify their cupidity, others 
forced to sell their children for the expenses of 
the passage. They arrived in Genoa in crowds, 
but were not suffered to tarry there long, by rea- 
son of the ancient law, which interdicted the 
Jewish traveler from a longer residence than 
three days. They were allowed, however, to re- 
fit their vessels and to recruit themselves for 
some days from the fatigue of the voyage. One . 
might have taken them for spectres, so emaciated 
were they, so cadaverous in their aspect, and 
with eyes so sunken; they differed in nothing 


from the dead, except in the power of motion, 
which, indeed, they scarcely retained. Many 
fainted and expired on the mole, which, being 
completely surrounded by the sea, was the only 
quarter vouchsafed to the wretched emigrants. 
The infection, bred by such a swarm of dead and 
dying- persons, was not at once perceived; but 
when winter broke up, ulcers began to make their 
appearance, and the malady, which lurked for a 
long time in the city, broke out into the plague 
in the following year," * 

More fortunate were the exiles that landed 
upon the shores of Naples. Its king, Ferdinand I. , 
was a prudent sovereign, a distinguished scholar, 
and, unlike the other rulers of Europe, he had suc- 
ceeded in keeping his power above that of the 
Church, and his heart free from the inhumanity and 
bigotry of the clergy. He opened his kingdom 
to the Jews, made the great Abarbanel, formerly 
in the service of Isabella, of Castile, one of his 
cabinet officers, and personally defended the Jews 
from an attack of the clergy and of the populace, 
who held the presence of the Jews accountable for 
the plague which was then raging, as elsewhere 
in Europe, in Naples. 

Equally as fortunate were those who landed 
upon the coasts where the Turks held dominion. 
Sultan Bajazet received them cheerfully, provided 
for them humanely, and directed their 
intellect and industry into useful channels. "Do 
they call this Ferdinand, of Spain, a prudent 

*Prescott: "Ferdinand and Isabella," Volume I, chapter xvii. 


prince, " asks the Sultan, "who can thus impover- 
ish his own kingdom and enrich ours?" 

Nearly 150,000 souls made their way, by land, 
to Portugal, whose king, John II., dispensed with 
his scruples of conscience so far as to allow his 
greed to triumph over his creed. He granted 
them a passage through his dominion on their way 
to Africa, and the permission of an eight months' 
stay in his realm, in consideration of a tax of eight 
dollars a head, which immense sum he levied from 
the native Portuguese Jews. Ferdinand and 
Isabella threatened, and Torquemada incited the 
Portuguese clergy, but John II. had over a million 
of dollars to quicken his conscience and to wage 
war if necessary, and expecting it, he instantly put 
such of the Jewish exiles who were manufacturers 
of arms and miners to work. But his clemency was 
of short duration. It soon gave away to the most 
frightful era of the exiles sufferings. When the news 
reached the homeless exiles of the atrocious crimes 
inflicted upon their brethren on their way to the 
African coasts, by inhuman captains and heartless 
crews, seeing nothing but cruel death before 
them, whether going or whether remaining, they 
preferred meeting death in Portugal, to exposing 
themselves to the inhumanity and beastly lusts and 
tortures of barbarous pirate sailors and African 
savages, and listlessly awaiting death, and praying 
for it, they remained after the time purchased for 
their stay had passed away. To their misfortune 
the plague broke out in Portugal and raged with 
deathly fury. Immediately the church arose, held 
the Jews responsible for the visitation of the plague, 


and lashed the populace into a relentless fury, be- 
cause of the visitation of the plague, and the breach 
of contract on the part of the Jews. The king's 
creed awoke again simultaneously with the rc j 
awakening of his greed. He issued an edict which 
threw even that of Torquemada into the shade. 
All Jewish children below 1 fourteen years of age 
were torn from their parents' arms, dragged into 
the church, baptized; those under three years of 
age were given to Christians, to receive a Christian 
education, or in other words to be raised as slaves; 
those between three and ten years of age, were put 
on board of a ship and conveyed to the newly dis- 
covered, unwholesome island of St. Thomas, called 
"Ilhas perdidas" "the isles of perdition," which 
was colonized by Potuguese condemned crimnals, 
to fare there as best they could. Those between 
ten and fourteen years were sold as slaves. Then, 
indeed, the cup of the their affliction was full to the 
brim. It was a s-tern truth which Lenau uttered; 
when he said: 

"Die Kirche vveiss die Schmerzen zuverwalten 
Das Herz bis in die Wurzel aufzuspalten." 

The Jews have experienced fully the unequaled 
skill of the Church in administering pain. Moth- 
ers cast themselves at the feet of the tyrants and 
pitifully begged to be taken with their babes; 
they were heartlessly thrust aside. Hundreds of 
mothers mad with dispair, ran behind the ship's 
as they carried off the idols of their heart, and 
perished in the waves. The serene fortitude, . 
with which the exile people had borne so many 


and such grievous calamities, gave way at last. and 
was replaced by the wildest paroxysms of despair. 
Piercing shrieks of anguish filled the land. Child- 
less and broken-hearted they now sought to leave 
the land, but they were told that they had for- 
feited their right, and they were given the choice 
between baptism and slavery. Thousands, after 
enduring all they did, after leaving their beloved 
Spain and all their wealth and ease, submitted to 
baptism now, in the hope of being reunited with 
their children. Thousands were sold as slaves, 
yet prior to their being sold, they were submitted 
to tortures, cruelties, outrages too revolting, too 
repulsive, too heart-rending to be here narrated. 

Terror seized upon the native Portuguese Jews, 
when they helplessly beheld the cruelties to which 
their Spanish brethren were subjected. The) 
knew they, themselves, could not escape the 
wrath of the Church much longer, and they 
thought of flight, and well had it been for them 
had they made their escape then. While the) 
were making secret preparations, Juhn II. died, 
1495. He had been afflicted, on the very day 
when the ships, laden with the Jewish exile child- 
ren, set sail for the isle of the condemned crim- 
inals, with a strange, painful malady, and had 
lingered ever since. 

His own promising son and successor preceded 
him into the grave. His cousin Manccl ascended 
the throne. He was the counterpart of his pre- 
decessor, kind hearted, a promoter of.learning. 
eager to further the interests of his country by 
discoveries abroad and by commerce at home. 


^Immediately he disfranchised the Jewish exiles 
sold into slavery, promised to recall the condemn- 
ed children, and issued an edict, in which he com- 
manded kind treatment to the Jews, andprohibited 
accusations against them. In their great joy the 
native Portuguese Jews sent an embassy to him, 
offering him large sums of money, voluntarily as 
a token of their gratitude. The king thanked 
them, reassured them of his good will, but refused 
to be paid for human kindness. 

But, again had destiny decreed that a woman 
was to play an ignoble part in the tragic history 
of the Jews. A marriage was proposed between 
Manoel of Portugal, and the daughter of Ferdinand 
and Isabella, of Spain. Manoel was rejoiced with 
the proposal. Already he saw himself in the near 
future King of United Spain and Portugal, and 
of the entire New World. But Satan stepped 
between, dipped his pen in gall, and writing the 
marriage contract, demanded as one of the con- 
ditions, the immediate expulsion from Portugal of 
all the Jews, both natives and exiles. 

The king hesitated. The fanatical daughter of 
fanatical parents persisted, argument made her 
more vehement. Torquemada might well be 
proud of his pupil the possession of vast empires, 
and of the most powerful crown of Europe tempted, 
and the tempter conquered. He had purchased 
his right to the princess of Spain at a sacrifice of 
thousands and thousands of lives, and with the 
destruction of the very pillars of his nation's pros- 

On the 3Oth of November, 1497, the marriage 


contract was signed, and on the 2Oth of the fol- 
lowing month appeared the edict of the expulsion 
of the Jews from Portugal The scenes of mourn- 
ing and wailing and heartrending cries which re- 
sounded in Spain, re-echoed in Portugal, only the 
more painfully, because of the terrible knowledge 
they had since acquired of the meaning of the 
word "Expulsion." 

Manoel soon regretted his signing away his 
most industrious, most intelligent and most pros- 
perous citizens. But the marriage contract held 
him fast, and the Spanish queen kept a watchful 
eye on him, and Torquemada upon both. The 
prospective vast empire, and the Spanish crcwn 
still dazzled his eyes. He planned a strategy. He 
thought he could force the parents to embrace 
Christianity, and to remain, if be cnce succeeded 
in getting all their children into his power, and 
into the Christian faith. He gave secret orders 
for the repetition of the atrocious crime of having 
all children under fourteen years of age seized 
from their mothers' bosom and fathers' arm, dis- 
persed through the kingdom to be baptised .and 
brought up as Christians. The secret became 
known. Portugal again re-echced the wails of 
stricken ones. Frantic mothers threw their chil- 
dren into deep \vells or rivers. Mothers were 
known to take their babes from their breast and 
tear them limb from limb, rather than to resign 
them to Christians. They \vould rather know the 
bodies of their children in the grave, and their re- 
leased spirit in Heaven, than have them adopt a 
faith into which Satan sent his friends for their 


schooling. With all the parents' opposition the 
king's order was executed. Many accepted bap- 
tism, but not enough to please the king, and to 
wreak vengeance upon them for thwarting his 
wishes, he revoked his edict, seized all who had 
not yet fled and sold them as slaves. 

But Israel was not yet forsaken. Italy, which 
had now become the seat of European learning, 
and had become very prosperous through the com- 
mercial and industrial zeal of the Spanish Jews, to 
whom it had offered refuge, and also Turkey, bade 
the Portuguese fugitives a hearty welcome. What 
Spain and Portugal rejected, they knew how to 
value. Even some of the Popes, Clement VII. 
and Paul III. (I rejoice to give them credit for it), 
favored their stay in Italy. They had learned to 
appreciate the services of the Jews. The flourish- 
ing Italian and Turkish Jewish congregations ran- 
somed their brethren, and enabled them to settle 
in Ancona, Pesaro, Livorno, Naples, Venice, 
Ferrara and elsewhere, and the blessing of God 
rested upon whatever city the Jews were permit- 
ted to settle. 

Many of the Portuguese Jews settled, and 
became prosperous, in the Indies, in Southern 
France and in Hamburg. Others settled in 
the Netherlands, and became especially pros- 
perous in Holland. From Holland large num- 
bers of the descendents of the Portuguese and 
Spanish exiles entered England, through the in- 
tercession of Menasse ben Israel with Oliver 
Cromwell, and from England and from the Indies 
and from Italy they entered the United States, 


into the land where tyranny is known no more, 
and persecution is fettered fast. Here dwell 
Christian and Jew side by side, peacefully, loving- 
ly, aiding each other, uniting with each other in the 
blessed work for which religion exists on earth, 
and in the spreading of the great principles of pol- 
itical and religious liberty. Here, where Christian 
extends the hand of fellowship unto Jew, and the 
heart of the Jew beats as loyally American as 
that of the Christian, solemnly they pledge: 

"We swear to be a nation of true brothers. 
Never to part in clanger or in death," 

Schiller's "/>//" 



In den Raumen der Alhambra 
Wandelt Spaniens fromme Herrin 
Isabella, die geruehmt wird 
Als ,,katholische Regentin". 

Wandelt dnrch die Zauberhallen, 
Die ein Maerchenglanz umspielet, 
Und befriedigt laechelnd laesst sie 
Auf den Thron sich langsam nieder. 

Denkt voll Selbstgefuehl des Senf/ers 
Jenes letzten Maurenherschers: 
,,A Dios Granada!" rief er, 
,,Ach, ich muss mich von dir wenden!' 

Denket jenes alten Stammes, 
Dem Vemichtung sie geschworen, 
Jenes hartverstockten Stammes, 
Den einst Gott in Lieb' erkoren. 

Was sich zaehlte zn den Ketzem 
Musste ihr Gebiet verlassen, 
Die ,,katholische Regentin" 
Laesst nur Einen Glauben vvalten. 

Froelich schaut sie auf die Staette. 
Wo Columbus einst gestanden, 
Der ihr neues Land entdeckte, 
Ihre Herrschaft zu entfalten. 

Da erscheint vor ihr die Tochter. 
Gleichfalls Isabel geheissen, 
Die den Gatten den geliebten. 
Still beklagt im Trauerkleide.' 


,,Sei willkommen mir zur Stunde!" 
Sprach die Mutter froher Weise, 
,, Eines Fuersteu Liebeswerben 
Hab ich heut dir mitzutheilen. 

Portugals beruehmter Koenig 
Legt sein Reichsland dir zu Fuessen , 
Fuer ihn Spricht sein Ritterwesen, 
Fuerihn sprechen wicht'ge Gruende.' 

Tief erschrocken hoert die Wittwe 
Ihrer Mutter kurze Rede, 
Deren Gruende, so betonet, 
Stets im Rathschluss raussten gelten. 

Isabella, unbeweghch, 
Faehrt im gleichen Tone weiter: 
,, Manoel muss mir geloben, 
Alle Juden zu vertreiben. 

Portugal und Spanien seien 
Eines Sinnes, Eines Glaubens, 
Toleranz ist unvertraeglich 
Mit dem Einen, wahren Glauben, ' 

Diese Worte machen Eindruck 
Auf die glaeubig fromme Wittwe, 
Und zur Ehre Gottes will sie 
Manoel in Lieb sich widmen. 

Voller Eifer richtet selbst sie 
An den Werber zarte Zeilen: 
,,Soll ich dein Gebiet betreten, 
Must die Juden du vertreiben." 

Manoel, der kluge Koenig, 
Der mit Milde sonst regieret 
Isabellas Worte zuenden, 
Keine Zeit will er verlieren. 

Seine Liebe macht ihn grausam, 
Unbesonnen folgt er Weibern, 
Ja, noch ueberbieten will er 
.Sie, wenn's geht, an Grausamkeiten. 


Den Befehl erlaesst er schleunig. 
Dass bis zu bestimmtem Tage 
Die Bekenner des ,,Allein'gen" 
Alle sein Gebiet verlassen . 

Alle Kinder die der Jahre vierzehn 
Noch nicht zaehlen, soil man geben 
Frommen Cristen zur Erziehung, 
Dass sie fromme Christen werden. 

Vordem Jammerschrei der Muetter 
Sucht sich Manoel zu retten, 
Blickend auf das zarte Bildniss, 
Gleichend einem holden Engel. 

Isabella laesst vergessen 
All das Leid, das er veruebet, 
Und mit Liebesgluthen eilt er, 
Seine Gattin heimzufuehren. 

Schon das Hochzeitsfest ist truebe, 
Ploetzlich starb der Kronprinz Spanien.s 
Und mit Trauer im Gemuethe 
Zieh'n nach Evora die Gatten. 

Manoel, dir drohet mehr noch: 
Eh' ein kurzes Jahr entschwindet 
Wirst du deine heissgeliebte 
Isabel als Leiche finden. 

Tief bewegt steht vor der Bahre 
Portugals beruehmter Koenig, 
Ihn erschreckt das Schrei'n des Kindes. 
Das ihm Isabel geschenket. 

Ob er jetzt wohl hoert das Schreien 
Jener Muetter, angsterfuellet? 
Das Geschrei der armen Kinder, 
Denen man geraubt die Muetter? ! 

Tiefgebeugt steht vor der Bahre 
Isabella, ,,die Katholische", 
Bruetend, sinnend, bleichen Blickes, 
Findet sie jetzt keine Worte. 


Aus dem Trauerkreise zieht sie 
Nach Granada mit dem Kinde, 
Das in ihrem herben Schmerze 
Ihr als einziger Trost geblieben. 

In den Raeumen der Alhambra 
Wandelt Spaniens fromme Herrin 
Isabella, die geruehmt wird 
Als ,,katholische Regentin". 

Wandelt durch die Zauberhallen, 
Die ein Maerchenglanz umspielet. 
Und mit kummervollem Herzen 
Laesst sie auf den Thron sich nieder. 

Denket da des schweren Leides, 
Dass sie Schlag auf Schlag betroffen. 
Und es loesen sich die Seufzer. 
Weinend sitzt sie auf dem Throne. 

Einz'ger Sohn, des Thrones Erbe, 
Musst' so frueh ich dich verlieren, 
Isabella, liebste Tochter, 
Musst' so frueh ich dich verlieren ! 

Ach, Maria, meine Tochter, 
Musst' so frueh ich dich verlieren, 
Einsam wandelt Katharina, 
Die vom Manne sich geschieden. 

Meine Leiden mehrt Johanna, 
Aermstes meiner guten Kinder. 
Ihres Gatten treulos Treiben 
Hat ihr den Verstand verwirret". 

Also seufzet Isabella, 
Seufzet auf dem stolzen Throne, 
Da erscheint vor ihr ein Diener, 
Doch er zoegert mit dem Worte. 

Boeses ahnend ruft die Koenigin: 
., Welches Unglueck wirst du melden? 
Sprich nur, ohne mich zu schonen, 
Haertres kann mich nicht mehr treffen' 


,,Don Miguel, das herz'ge Soehnchen, 
Den in Ihrer grossen Liebe 
Ihre Majestaet als Kronprinz nannten, 
Eben ist er sanft verschieden". 

Lautlos hoert es Isabella, 
Die fuer Gott nur stets gehandelt 
Und mit frommer Duldermiene 
Schleicht sie wankend aus dem Saale. 










A few words more and our task is ended. A 
few words more and we shall bid a last farewell 
to unfortunate Spain, once so sunny, so prosperous, 
so intellectual, and so fair. A few words more 
and our goodly vessel, staunch and strong, will 
furl its eager wings and speed us straight across 
the foaming deep, and land us once again upon 
Columbia's heaven blessed and freedom-kissed 
virgin soil. As we predicted, so it came to pass. 
Our journey back into the centuries of the past, 
and into foreign lands, and among foreign peo- 
ples, has proven a profitable one, and as mem- 
orable as profitable. Events and scenes, beauti- 
ful and loathsome, joyous and tearful, soul refresh- 
ing and execrable, followed each other in rapid 
succession. There was much, which, despite the 
most authentic historic sources, seemed fabulous, 


incredible, impossible. Men and women and the 
states of society and civilization in which they 
lived and played their parts, were described, 
which startled us for their peerless magnificence, 
for their marvelous intellectuality, scarce equalled 
even now, and led us to suppose that we were not 
dealing with facts, but with the imagination of some 
rich phantasy. And events and achievements were 
recounted which struck terror into our very soul, 
and caused the heart to rise in rebellion against 
the mind when it was asked to believe them as 
actual occurrences, and not as some distressing and 
revolting and blood-stained work of fiction. And 
yet all that was told, and all that was described, 
and all that was recounted was history, and true 
history, strange and incredible, marvelous and 
anomalous though it did appear. 

Two races of men engaged our attention most, 
the Jews and the Moors. When first we met 
the Jews in the southwestern corner of Europe, we 
found them a prosperous community, large in 
numbers, loved and appreciated by their heathen 
neighbors, busily engaged in transforming Spain in- 
to a granery and into the garden spot of Europe, 
and contributing largely, by their high morality and 
intelligence, by their skill and industry to the na- 
tion's prosperity. 

With the advent of the power of Christanity in 
Spain, in the Sixth Century, a sad change took 
place. It marked the beginning ot the martyrology 
ot the Jews in Europe. Thousands were massa- 
cred, thousands were dragged to the baptismal 
font, thousands were forced to take the staff of 


exile. But not for long. A deliverer arose from 
the Arabian peninsula and hastened to their 
rescue. This Arabian people, agile in the use 
of arms, dexterous in the training of horses, capa- 
ble of sustaining great latigue and hardship, and, 
true to the Semitic race, intellectual and saga- 
cious, had lived till late in the Sixth Century a 
peaceful, nomadic life. Suddenly they were 
awakened out of their religious and political inac- 
tivity by their great leader Mohammed, the pro- 
phet. He kindled in their hearts the fire of 
enthusiasm, and led them forth to establish through- 
out the world his faith and his dominion. Asia 
submitted, Africa submitted. The early dawn of 
the Eighth Century saw them, where the African 
continent protrudes boldly to meet the continent 
of Europe, casting wistful glances across the 
straits of Hercules, upon Andalusia's beauteous 
lands. The exiled Jews and Christans, roused to 
rebellion by the religous and political tyranny of 
Spain, conspired with the Mohammedan invaders, 
and the portals of Spain were opened to the peo- 
ple of Arabia, and Europe to the creed of 
Mohammed. The exiled Jews returned to their 
country, and the baptized to their cherished faith, 
for the Arab-Moors tolerated both the Hebrew 
people and their faith. Moorish and Jewish skill 
and industry and intelligence united, and united 
they became and they maintained that distinction 
for many centuries the most prosperous and most 
intellectual people of Europe, at a time when the 
rest of Europe was numbed into a death-like tor- 
por, mentally spell-bound, industrially entranced. 


politically enslaved, morally degraded and relig- 
iously fettered, by a corrupt priestcraft, to ignor- 
ance and superstition. 

Eight centuries long Jew and Moor toiled side 
by side, and during all these centuries, the Jews, 
with some few exceptions, politically tolerated, 
and religiously free, arose to great wealth and 
commercial importance, clothed honorably high 
political offices, and occupied a social and intel- 
lectual position never equalled in Europe before 
or since. 

But the Mohammedan power began to wane, and 
with its waning came the terrible change in the 
fortunes of the Hebrew people. With Moorish 
decline awakened the eagerness of the Spaniards 
for the provinces from which the Arabian invaders 
had driven them, and with it grew a most fanati- 
cal zeal for the expulsion from its territories oi 
every belief save that of Christianity. 

A desperate struggle ensued. Province after 
province the Moor was forced to yield to the re- 
lentless foe. At last all was lost. The Mohammed- 
an power in Spain was crushed. The Moors and 
Jews were given the choice between baptism and 
expulsion. Hundreds of thousands of them 
feigned allegiance to the Church of Christ, and 
remained. Hundreds of thousands of them, true 
to their faith, parted heart-broken from the land 
that was dearer to them than their own life. The 
remaining baptized Jews and Moors were soon 
suspected of relapsing into their old faith, and the 
Inquisition was brought and burned them by the 
thousands, and thinned the ranks of the. exile Jews. 


By far the greater number perished from cruelty, 
exposure, starvation, disease, in their search for a 
quiet spot where they might live or die in peace. 
Wherever the remainder of them was permitted to 
settle, thither they brought blessings *** verifying 
the promise of God: "They that bless thee will be 

And so, too, was verified the other half of that 
promise: "They that curse thee will be cursed." 
The curse of God has hung heavily upon Spain, 
ever since she had dared to lay violent hand upon 
God's anointed, ever since she cruelly massa- 
cred, burned and exiled the most thrifty, the most 
industrious, the most intellectual people that ever 
trod her soil, and made her the glory of Europe 
and the pride of the world. For a short time only, 
lingered her prosperity after the expulsion of the 
people that had created that prosperity. The 
New World, the discovery of which the Jews and 
Moors had made possible, poured into the moth- 
er country a prodigious wealth, which hastened , 
the ruin of Spain . It intoxicated the Spaniards, 
and when the sobering came, the effect was ter- 
rible. Had they had the skillful, and industrious 
and intelligent Jews and Moors to turn the vast 
treasures, which poured into Spain with every 
vessel, into useful channels, Spain would 
have maintained her position as leader in the 
commercial world, and Italy, and France, and the 
Netherlands, the new homes of the Jews, would 
never have seized it from her, and Spain would 

*Cf. Lecky's "Rationalism in Europe" vol i. chap. vi. 
**Genesis xii: 3. 


not have been to-day what she is. But, instead, 
it flowed into the coffers of the greedy and in- 
satiable Church, and the richer the Church be- 
came the more terrible became its tyranny, and 
the greater the inducement for laymen to enter 
it. Convents and Churches multiplied with such 
vast speed, that early in the Seventeenth Century 
the Spanish historian enumerates upwards of 
9,000 monasteries, besides nunneries, 32,000 
Dominican and Franciscan friars, 14,000 chaplains 
in the diocese of Seville, and 18,000 in the diocese 
of Calahorra. 

The State was completely in its power. Even 
Charles V and Phillip II, sovereigns not to be 
matched in any other country for a period of equal 
length, submitted cheerfully to the power of the 
Church, and thought it a blessed privilege to do 
so. It was Charles V's great boast that he al- 
ways preferred his creed to his country, and prov- 
ed his boast by slaying in cold blood, in the Neth- 
erlands, over 50,000 peaceful, industrious, good 
Christian citizens for their religious opinions. The 
cannibal appetite of the Church had to be appeas- 
ed, when the stock of Jewish and Moorish victims 
was exhausted, truth and knowledge-seeking 
Christians had to supply their places upon the 
quemaderos, and in the torture-dungeons of the 
Inquisition. Even with his last breath he com- 
manded his son, Philip, never to show favor to 
heretics, to kill them all, to uphold the Inquisition 
as the best means for the establishment of the 
true belief. Philip II. proved himself worthy of 
his sire. He has written his services to the Church 


upon history's records with flames of fire and let- 
ters of blood. 

With amazing swiftess Spain's once invincible 
power began to disappear, becoming weaker with 
every century, and to-day the population of more 
than 30,000,000 of people before the expulsion of 
the Jews and Moors has dwindled down to about 
one half of that number, while her neiofborinof 

o o 

countries have increased in numbers and prosper- 
ity. "So rapid was the fall of Spain," says Buckle , 
in his "History of the Civilization of England,"/ 
Vol. II, Chap. I, "that the most powerful mon- 
archy existing in the world was depressed to the 
lowest point of debasement, was insulted with 
impunity by foreign nations, was reduced more 
than once to bankruptcy, was stripped of her fair- 
est possessions, was held up to public opprobrium, 
was made a theme on which schoolboys and mor- 
alists loved to declaim, respecting the uncer- 
tainty of human affairs. Truly did she drink to 
the dregs the cup of her own shame. Her glory 
had departed from her, she was smitten down and 
humbled. The mistress of the world was gone; 
her power was gone, no more to return." 

The Church had proven itself a false prophet. 
"Once purge blessed Spain." it preached to its 
credulous followers, "of the presence of the ac- 
cursed Jews and Moors, and yourselves and your 
families will be under the immediate protection 
of Heaven. The earth will bear more fruit. A 
new era will be inaugurated, Spain will be at ease. 
People will live in safety, and gather in peace and 
in abundance the fruits of their handiwork." 


Such was the prophecy: but bitter its fulfilment. 
With the expulsion of the Jews and Moors large 
bodies of industrious and expert agriculturists and 
skilled mechanics were suddenly withdrawn, and 
there was no one to fill their place. The 
cultivation of rice, cotton and sugar, and the manu- 
facture of silk and paper was destroyed at a blow, 
and most of it was destroyed forever, for the 
Spanish Christians, still intoxicated with their 
military and financial and social greatness, con- 
, sidered such pursuits beneath their dignity. To 
fight for the king and to enter the Church was 
\ honorable, but everything else was mean and 
sordid. Whole districts were deserted and have 
never been repeopled to the present day. The 
brigands soon occupied the places formerly so 
beneficially filled by honest toilers. In less than 
fitty years 16,000 looms of Seville, giving em- 
ployment to 130,000 persons, had dwindled away 
to less than 300, and its population to one quarter 
of its former number. The mines stood idle until 
foreigners took pity of some of them. The others 
are idle still. A little over one hundred years ago 
the Spanish government being determined to have 
a navy, found it necessary to send to England 
for shipwrights ; and they were obliged to apply 
to the same quarter for persons who could make 
ropes and' canvas, the skill of the natives being 
unequal to such arduous achievements; and early 
in the eighteenth century they were obliged to 
import laborers from Holland to teach the Span- 
iards the art of making wool, an art for which in 
their glorious past they were especially famous. 


The consequences of this industrial and agri- 
culturial standstill could not fail. Famine set in. 
The grandees murmered aloud against the State 
for expelling the Jews and Moors. The citizens 
of Madrid fell down in the streets famished and 
perished where they fell so had famished and 
died the Jewish exiles anarchy prevailed. 
Peaceful citizens organized themselves into bands 
and going in search of bread, broke open private 
houses, and robbed and murdered the inhabitants 
in the face of day thus had been murdered the 
Jewish exiles. Verily God's prophecy was ful- 
filled: "And I will bless them that bless thee, and 
curse them that curse thee, in thee shall the families 
of the earth be blessed."* | 

Spain's intellectual decline kept steady pace with 
its political and industrial decay. No more is she 
the center of Europe's learning. No more does her 
intellect shed luminous rays all over the worlc 
The Moor and the Jew have fled her provinces, 
and darkness covers her lands, the shadows of 
night again brood stiflingly over her people. 
Her poverty has made her ignorant, her ignor- 
ance has made her intensely fanatic, and her 
fanaticism is, to this day, the enemy of all social 
and intellectual advance. For two centuries and 
more investigation likely to stimulate thought 
was positively prohibited. In the measure that 
her sister countries advanced intellectually she 
declined, and in proportion as they shook off the 
fetters of the Church, she cheerfully submitted to 
have them drawn tighter about her. Until the 

*Gen xii:3. 


] ~ ! ! 

eighteenth century Madrid did not possess a 

single public library, and to-day the number of 
volumes in all the Spanish libraries cannot reach 
' 500,000. The library of Cordova in the tenth 
century, before the printing press was discovered, 
counted over 600,000 volumes. The Government 
library of Paris and that of London count respect 
ively over 1,500,000 and over 2,000,000 volumes. 
So late as the year 1771 the Unversity of Sala- 
manca, the most ancient and most famous seat of 
\ learning in Spain, publicly refused to allow the 
1 discoveries of Newton to be taught, and assigned 
as a reason that his system was not consonant 
with revealed religion. Buckle quotes from 
Spanish sources, an epistle which will illustrate 
the abysses of ignorance into which the Spanish 
intellect had sunk. About a century ago some 
bold men proposed that the streets of Madrid 
should be cleansed. The proposal was met with 
excited indignation. The question was submitted 
by the government to the medical profession. 
They reported unfavorably. They had no doubt 
that the dirt ought to remain. To remove it 
was a new experiment, and of new experiments 
it was impossible to foresee the issue. Their 
fathers having lived in it, why should they not do' 
the same? Their fathers were wise men, and 
must have had good reasons for their conduct. 
The filth shall remain. And it did remain. And 
it did make Spain the, alas, too frequent victim 
of plague and cholera, and we now no longer 
wonder that a year ago, when the cholera raged 
in Spain, the people arose against the physicians 


for being ask^d to resort to medicines and clean- 
liness and not to Relics and Holy Water. 

Intellectually Spain sleeps on, dreams on, re- 
ceiving no impressions from the rest of the 
world and making none upon it. "There she 
lies," says the historian, "at the further extremity 
of the continent, a huge and torpid mass, the sole 
representation now remaining of the feelings and 
knowledge of the middle ages. And what is the 
worst symptom of all, she is satisfied with her 
own condition. Though she is the most back- 
ward country in Europe, she believes herself fore- 
most. She is proud of everything of which she 
should be ashamed. She is proud of the antiquity 
of her opinions; proud of her orthodoxy; proud of 
the strength of her faith; proud of her immeasur- 
ble and childish credulity; proud of her unwilling- 
ness to amend either her creed or her customs; 
proud of her hatred of heretics, and proud of the 
undying vigilance with which she has baffled their 
efforts to obtain a full and legal establishment 
on her soil." 

But since Buckle penned these forcible lines, 
she has made a change. She has recalled the 
Jews, some five years ago, after 400 years 
of banishment. Her eyes have been opened at 
last, and she now seeks to repair her wrongs to 
the people she afflicted most. And prosperity 
will follow the re-entrance of the Jews. Spain 
will again be blest; it may take time, church 
tyranny will first have to be crushed and ignorance 
and superstition rooted out.but crushed and rooted 
out they will be. Her harbors on the Alantic 
and Mediterranean will again command the com- 


merce of both hemispheres. Her cities will 
again teem with people. Her towns will 
again flourish, her manufactures will again be 
skillful, the produce of her exuberant soil will 
again gladden the heart of mankind. Her in- 
exhaustible mines, rich in all the precious and all 
the useful metals, her quarries of marbles and her 
beds of coal will again set the wheel of industry 
into busy motion. She will be blest again. She 
must be blest again, for such is the word of God. 
She has held out the hand of friendship to His 
anointed people, and they that bless them will be 

The Moors, Spain no more can recall. The 
Arab- Moors, such as they were in Spain, exist no 
longer. Their descendents roam as benighted 
Bedouins over those regions of Africa which their 
ancestors once illumined by the light of learning. 
Gone is most of their literature. The beautiful 
accents of the classic Arabic tongue are heard 
no more. Darkness, deep darkness, rules 
over the Arabian peninsula now. The history 
that their sires in Spain have made our civiliza- 
tion their debtor, reads indeed, to-day, like unto 
a fairy tale. 

But the Jews live, and fulfill the glorious mis- 
sion for which they have been scattered through- 
out the world. The people chosen by the Eternal 
Jehovah to be His priest people cannot die. The 
people that has seen the tidal waves of Babylon, 
Persia. Greece, Egypt, Rome roll over it and in- 
stead of engulfing it has lived to see them en- 
gulfed; the people that live after a thousand strug- 


gles, after deeds of heroic courage that Rome, 
and Athens, and Sparta, and Carthage have never 
equaled, outliving them all; the people that still 
lives, after eighteen centuries of persecution, and 
still is united, though scattered the wide world 
over, and though not held together by the ties of 
any fatherland, was never destined to be anni- 
hilated by any Church or by any race of men. 
The Jew is older than both, and will outlive 
them both. Time and death wield no power 
over him. Emerson spoke truly: 

"This is he who, felled by foes, 
Sprung harmless up, refreshed by blows: 
He to captivity was sold, 
Hut him no prison bars would hold; 
Though they sealed him in a rock, 
Mountain chains he can unlock; 
Thrown to lions for their meat. 
The crouching lion kissed his feet; 
Bound to the stake, no flames appalled, 
But arched o'er him an honoring vault." 

Such is the Jew. He is as indestructible as 
his religion, and as eternal as his God. 


Schoenes Land der Jugend Traeume ! 
Habe endlich dich durchzogen, 
Ueberall nur Freude findend, 
Herzlich war ich aufgenommen. 

Schoen bist du und lachend woelbt sich 
Ueber dir der blaue Himmel, 
Dich umrauschen Meeresvvellen 
Und dir ragen Bergesgipfel. 

Auf den Feldern blueht der Weinstock, 
Feigenbaeume decken Huetten, 
Purpurn glaenzen die Granaten, 
Und der Oelbaum strotzt in Fuelle. 

Allzeit duf ten dir die Rosen 
Und die Myrthen in dem Garten, 
Gleich Orangen und Citronen 
Bilden Waelder dir die Palmen. 

Schoenes Land, das frohen Menschen 
Steigert den Gesang zum Jauchzen, 
Land des Weines und der Taenze 
Und der anmuthsvollen Frauen. 

Land der Dichter und der Ritter, 
Und der muntren Volkessitten, 
Land fuer Hohes sich begeisternd, 
Und gefuehrt vom Edelsinne. 

Einst, ja einst, da sangen mit euch, 
Judas Soehne, euch zum Ruhme, 
Waren eng mit euch vereinet, 
Gleicher Sinn hat euch verbunden. 


Sie auch stellten mauchen Denker, 
Der noch heut' im Volke lebet, 
Und ihr habt von eurem Namen 
Vieles ihnen zu verdanken. 

Sie auch stellten manchen Dichter, 
Der in urer schoenen Sprachen 
Liedere sang in alien Toenen, 
Wie sie nur Iberien athmet. 

Trefflich waret ihr gebildet, 
Die Natur hat euch geschmuecket. 
Doch, es waren boese Maechte, 
Die euch falsche Wege fuehrten. 

Jene boesen Maechte sind es, 
Die euch das Verderben brachten, 
Despotismus war die eine, 
Fanatismus war die andre. 

Schon in diesen wen'gen Blaetteru 
Hoert ihr eine Welt von Jammer. 
Rastlos jagten schwarze Wolken, 
Euren Himmel zu umnachten. 

Doch es nahen nach den Stuenneu 
Endlich jene lichten Zeichen, 
Die die neue Zeit verkuenden, 
Alte Schaeden auszugleichen! 

Ja, sie nahen, jene Geister, 

Fuer die Wahrheit sich zu muehen; 

Ja, sie nahen, jene Maenner, 

Die fuer Menschenrecht ergluehen. 

D'rum sei alles Leid vergessen, 
Bruedern ziemt es, zu vergeben, 
Ob der grossen Geisteswerke 
Wollen freudig'wir vergeben. 

Ob der grossen Geisteswerke, 
Die wir danken euren Gassen, 
Unserer Geschichte Glanzpunkt, 
Seit wir Judas Land verlassen. 


Moege cure Kraft sich sammeln, 
Wohlstand cure Wege schmuecken, 
Wissenschaf t und Kunst erstarken, 
Frieden euer Land begluecken. 

NOTE. The German Poems, at the end of Chapters XV., XVI. 
XVII., XVIII., are selections from Dr. M. Levins' "Iberia." 

Note 12, page 205, alludes to the fact that Torquemada was in con 
slant dread of assassination, and that he always carried the horn of a 
unicorn with him, believing that it would save him. 

The poetic selections on pages 133, 134, 135, are from the writings 
of Gabirol. Ha Levi is the author of the first selection, and Moses ben 
Ezra of the second selection on page 136. 


. \IIAKUANKI,. intercedes with Queen Isabella 
n behalf of Jews, 196; enters the service of 

"Ferdinand I, King of Naples, 212 
Abbu Rabbi, President of Medical School of 

Narbonne, ic8. 
Abdallah Ibn Xamri, the Moorish poet, 44, 

47; Eulogizes the Jews, 99. 
Abder Rahman III patron of art and learning, 

6; assists in the erection of the great Mosque, 


AbtMi Esra, the poet, 129. 
Abitur Joseph Ibn, translator of the Mishnah, 

44, 137- 
Abou (Jlhman, author of treatise on Geology. 

120; accounts for the origin of mountains, 

1 20. 
Acids, discovery of by the Jews and Moors, 


Agriculture, zealously fostered by Jews and 
Moors, 162; amount of its revenue, 162; its 
neglect after expulsion of Jews and Moors. 

Albertus Magnus, is served by a brazen an- 
droid, 23. 

Albigenses, the first to suffer by the Inquisi- 
tion. 175. 

Alchofni, Jehuda ben Solomon ben, the poet, 
13 i ; extracts from his writings, 182. 

Alcohol, introduced by the Jews and Moors; 


Alexandria, great center of learning, 105. 149; 

condition of Jews in, 152; its learning ex- 
tinguished by the Church, 153. 
Alfonso X, (El Sabro) his astronomical tables, 

119; his boast, 1 19. 
Algebra, dispute as to whom belongs the 

honor of its invention, 116; first applied 

to geometry, 1 16. 
Alhakem II Caliph, splendor of his court, his 

great library. 125; an enthusiastic student 

and an not a tor, 30 
Alhambra, prideof the Moors, 172; its capture 

by Ferdinand and Isabella. 173- 
Ali, son in law of Mohammed, fourth Caliph, 

112; his maxim in favor of Science, 1 12. 
Alkhazi, his views on evolution, I2i,( note). 

Almamum, Caliph, his' maxim in favor of 
learning, 124. 

America, its discovery hastened by the teach- 
ings of Averroes, 166. 

Ammon St.. his asceticism. 16. 

Andalusia, beauty of,5, 35. 59, conquest of 1 y 
Arab- Moors, 55. 

Angels, accompanying men. 37, 41, 74. 

Anthony St., cures inflammations, 107. 

Antipodes, existence of,denied by the church, 

Antonio Joseph de Silva, burned by the 
Inquisition, 182 188. 

Apothecary, first introduced in Europe by 
Moors, ill. 

Aquinas Thomas St., disturbed by the brazen 
android of Albertus Magnus 23; resists 
Averroism, 157. 

Arabs, history of, 48; their skill in the use of 
martial weapons, 49; their mental endow- 
ments, 49; their skill in training horses, 
49; their hospitality. 49; their change of 
religion. 49; their religious creed tinctured 
with Judaism, 50; influenced by Magian 
and Sabean creeds, 50; how affected by 
teachings of Mohammed, 50; their western 
movements, 53; their coalescing with the 
Moors, 54. 

Arab-Moors, their march of conquest, 54; 
their services to Europe, 105; their con- 
tributions to medical science, no; tu 
the other sciences; 112, 122; to 
literature, 123-128; to philosophy, 154- 
158; to the industries, 162-167; their great 
culture causes their political decline, 171; 
their last defeat and last surrender, 172; 
their deplorable deterioration, 236. 

Arabian Nights; stories of their origin, 127. 

Archimedes, studies mathematics in Alexand- 
ria 150. 

Architecture, beauty of Moorish architecture 
38 40, 59-63. 

Ariosto, his debt to Moorish literature, 12S. 

Aristotelian Philosophy, influenced by Alexan 
drian learning 151; engrafted upon the theo- 



logy of Jews, 153; propagated by the Jews, 

154; Moors adopt it, 154 155- 
Arithmetic, science of, first generally intro- 

duced into Europe by Moors, 114. 
Aries, seat ot Medical College, 108. 
Asceticism, its prevalence, 16. 
Astronomy, zealously cultivated by Jews and 

Moors, 118. 
Atmosphere, height of determined by Jews 

and Moors. 118. 
Atomistic philosophy, 151. 
Avenzoar, (Ibn /ohr) physician to the court 

of Seville, 110; his famous medical work, 

no; becomes the medical authority for Euro- 

pean University, no. 
Avicenna (Ibn Sina). his medical work, no. 


Bacon Roger, influenced by Averroism, 158. 
Bagdad, a centre of Mohammedan learning, 

105 116. 
Bajazet. Sultan of Turkey, welcomes exiled 

.Spanish Jews, 212. 

Banks, first established by Jews, 166, (note.) 
Bechai ben Joseph, author of a celebrated 

work Jn Ethics, 137. 

Belisarias, opposed by fews of Naples, 88. 
Bills of Exchange, first introduced by Jews, 

165, 170. (Note.) 

Boabdil el Chico besieged by Ferdinand 
and Isabella, 172; his surrender, 172; begs 
for clemency, 173. 
Boccaccio, borrows from the literature of 

Moors, 128. 

Bookkeeping,introduced by Jews,i66. (No*e. ) 
Bridge of Al Sirat, Mohammedan supersti- 

tion concerning it, 43. 

Bulan, King of Khozars, adopts religion of 
Jews, 79. 


Caaba, great mosque at Mecca, rivalled by 

the Mezquita of Cordova, 38. 
Caliphs, patrons of learning, 125 
Cape of Good Hope, discovered by Jews, 

Carpet, weaving of, a specialty of the Moors, 


Cassiodorus, his opinion of the Jews, 
Castile, refuses admission to inquisition, 179. 
Ceuta, stronghold of Spain near the straits o' 

Gibraltar, 54; Valiantly defended by Coun' 

Julian, 54. 
Chagan Joseph, king of Khozars, corresponds 

with Chasdai ben Isaac, 80. 
Chanoch Moses ben, description of 64; starts 

at Sura, 65; taken captive, 65; tragic deaih 
of his wife, 66; sold as slave to Cordova, 
66; is appointed Day an of all European 
Jews, 62 67. 

Charisi, the Jewish poet, 131; extracts from 
his poetry, 132. 

Chasdai ben Isaac Ibn Shaprut, his import- 
ance at the court of the Caliph, 44; de- 
scription of, 66; his home life, 75; his 
correspondence with Chagan Joseph, king 
of the Khozars, 80. 

Chaucer, borrows from literature of Moors, 

Chemistry, originated by Jews and Moors, 


Church Catholic, its ignorance during- the 
Dark Ages, 18-20; 107, 119, 153, 157; its 
greed, 22, 24, 27, 10?; its cruelty 26, 1'i'J, 
171, et seqn, its superstition, 24 26; its cor- 
ruption, 28. 

Chushiel Rabbi, taken captive with Moses 
ben Chanoch, 65; establishes a school at 
Kairuan. 67. 
Civilization of Europe, exclusive of Spain, 

during Dark Ages, 12 33. 
Clara St., cures sore eyes, 107. 
"lement VII, Pope, friendly to Jews. 218. 
^lock, invented by Jews and Moors, 118. 
Colleges, abundance of in the Moorish realm, 

Columbus, is led to discovery of America by 

Averroism, 156. 
"onon, teaches mathematics in Alexandria, 


Conquest, of Spain by Arab-Moors, 53-57. 
Copernicus, alludes to astronomical discov- 
eries of Profi at, 118; his discovery antici- 
pated by Jews, 119. 

Copper, its chemical affinity determined, 120 
Cotton, fabrics extensively manufactured in 

the Moorish commonwealth, 164; 
Council decrees, Fourth of Carthage prohibits 
bishops from reading secular books, 18; 
third council of Toledo, 589, A. C.; begins 
the martyrology of the Jews, 93; fourth 
. council of Toledo (633 A. C. enacts decree 
that children of Jewish converts be taken 
from their parents, 95; sixth, ninth and 
twelfth councils of Toledo enact still more 
cruel laws against Jews 95, 96; prohibit 
Jewish physicians to attend Christian pa- 
tients, 107. 
Cordova,description of during loth cent, 5-1 1 , 

34, 46. 47. 

Creed, Mohammedan, 41, 42. 
Crucifix, sheds tears of blood, 23. 

for Europe to collect money for academy 

Ctesibius, invents steam engine. 150. 


Equations - firsttau S hl b y I bn Ibrahim, 

. t - his fanaticism and murder of 
Hypatia, 153. 


CUS, a center of Mohammedan learn- 

ing, 105, 116. 
Decline of Moors, 17 . 
Demons, teachings of Church concerning 

them .23 ; tempt the virtue of ecclesiastics.24. 
Departure ot Jews from Spain, 201. 202, 205. 
Diaspore, account of, 83. 
Diophantus credited with the invention of 

Algebra, 116. 
Dispersion of Jews, 206. 
Distillation apparatus for invented by Jews 

and Moors, 120. 
Dominic St., founder of Dominican Order, 

and of Inquisition, 175. 
Drugs, fiist introduced in Europe by Jews 

and Moor , 109, no. 
Dunash ben Lahrat, poet and grammarian, 

44- -+^. 

'. Us lonn and dimension and revolution 

determined by Jews and Mi-ors. 118. 
E , oiiliquity of earth's, proven by Ibn 

lunis, 118. 

Edict of expulsion, 193. 
Education, provisions for 'among Jews and 

Moors 9, 125 

Eleatics, their philosophy, 151. 
England, during Dark Ages, 14; its literature 

influenced by that of the Moors, 128. 
Eratosthenes, makes as-ronony a science, 


Esra Moses ben, selections from his poetic 

writings, 130, 136. 
Euclid, the mathematician, 150. 
E iphraxia St , shudders at the mention of a 

bath. 16. 

E irope, during dark days, 12 33. 
Evolution, doctrine of. anticipated by Al 

vhazim, 12. (Note.) 
Exchange Bills of, introduced by Jews, i6y-8. 


Expulsion, edict of 193. 
E/.ra Ibn, polyhistor of his age, 109; distin- 

guished as physician, commentator and 

author, 109. 


FAT \LISM, Mooiish belief in, 42. 
Ferdinand, King of Aragon. marries Isabella, 
queen ot Castile, 172; his march against 

Ferdinand I, King of Naples welcomes exiled 

Spanish lews, 212. 
Feudalism its practices during Dark .V r es 

31, 167. (Note.) 
Filigree work, cultivated by Jews ami Moors. 

Filtration, apparatus for, invented by Jews 

and Moors, 120. 
Florinda, daughter of Count Julian, maid of 

honor at the court of Roddick, 54; her ruin, 

54; her father's revenge, 54. 
France, during Dark Ages, 14; influenced by 

culture of Jews and Moors, 108. 
Franciscan, monks favor Averroism, 157. 
Friday, the Mohammedan Sabbath, 35-38. 
Fusion, apparatus for, invented by Jews and 

Moors, 12O. 

G VBIROL, Solomon ben Jehudah, selections 

from his poetry, 134, 135, 137-140. 
Genoa, description of exiled Jews landing 

Granada, 172; approves of the inquisition, 


at, 211. 

Geology, work on, by Avicenna. 120. 
Geometry, advance made in it by Moors, 116. 
Germany, during Dark Ages, 14. 
Gibraltar, origin of its name, 55. 
Glass, manufactured by Jews and Moors 

during Dark Ages, 165. 
Gold, its chemical affinity determined by- 

Jews and Moors, l2o. 

Goths, their cruelty against the Jews, 92-98. 
Granada, its commercial importance, 16/, 

last province of Moors 172; its surrender, 

Graveyards, Jews resort to graveyards for 

consolation, 197. 
Guadelete. decisive battle of, 55. 
Gunpowder, introduced in Europe by Jews 

IlA-LEvi Jehudah, selections from his poetry, 

130, 132, 136, 143. 
Hegira, its date, 38. 
Hell, conception of as taugh by Christian ty 

during Dark Ages, 24, as taught^by Mo- 

hammedanism, 43. 
Heraclius, conspires with Sisebut for extir- 

pating the Jews, 94 
Hero, invents 'steam-engine, 150. 
Hindoos, credited with invention of Algebra, 

Holland, ' welcomes exiled Spanish and 

Portuguse Jews, 215. 



Holy (ihost finger of, preserved in Alsatian 

Monastery, 23. 
Hjpalia, murder of, 154- 


Ibn Roshd (Averroes.) The grestest phil- 
osopher of the Arab- Moors, !56. 

Ihn Sina, (see Avicenna ) 

Ibn Sohr (see Avenzoar. ) 

Ignorance, in Europe during Dark Ages, 29. 

Indies, settled by exiled Portuguese Jews 218, 

Industries, lack of in Europe during Dark 
Ages, 30; flourishing in Spain, 160; lead to 
the discovery of America, 166 

Infants, their burning in hell described, 25. 

Innocent III, pope, aids in the establishment 
of thel nquisition, 175. 

Insurance, fire and marine introduced by 
Jews. 166. (Note.) Opposed by the 
church. 166. (Note.) 

Inventions by Jews and Moors, 112-122. 

Inquisition described by Samuel Usque, 174; 
its introduction, 175; its cruellies, 175-182. 

Iron, chemical affinity determined by Jews 
and Moors, 120. 

Irrigation, treaties on, 163. 

Isaac ben Sid, prepares Alphonsine tables, 

Isabella, queen of Castile marries Ferdinand, 
King of Aragon, 172; opposed to Inquisi- 
tion, 179; her opposition overcome by her 
husband and Torquemada, 179, desires to 
revoke expulsion edict, 196; a scene with 
Torquemada. 196. 

Israeli Isaac ben Suleiman, author of medical 
work on fever, no. 

Italy, welcomes exiled Portuguese Jews, 218. 

JAMES, the apostle, his arm preserved in an 
Alsatian-Monastery, 23. 

Jerome St. opposes bishops studying secular 
subjects, 18. 

Jerusalem, its destruction. 83, 84. 

lews, their dispersion 85. 87; their early suf- 
fering 83, 85. 89; their entrance into Spain, 
9!; their earliest sufferings in Spain, 92 
90; favorably treated by Arab-Moor, 98. 
loo; aid Arab-Moors in their conquest of 
Spain 54, 98; devoted to industry in Europe 
during Dark Ages, 3!; make Spain garden 
spot of Europe, 91 ; their learning, 108; their 
contribution to medical science, lio; in the 
pure sciences, 113; their treatment in 
Alexandria 152; devoted to Aristotelian 
philosophy, 154; their importance in com- 

merce, 165-170 (Note ) Their prosecu- 
tions, (73 177; feign allegiance to Chris- 
tianity, 177; their expulsion from Spain. 
189-205; their sufferings. 2<>7 214; rest and 
peace at last. 219; their eternity, :>:}?. 

John the Baptist, his skeleton preserved in 
an Alsatian Monastery. 23. 

John II, king of Portugal grants ai. eight 
month's sojourn in Portugal lo exuol 
Spanish Jews, 213; his cruelty to the Jews, 
214. 215. 

Joseph Cliagan, king of Khozars, his pro- 
position to Chasdai ben Isaac, 80. 

Julian, count, his valiant defence of Ceuti, 
54! his revolt 54; insult to his daughter, 
54; swears revenge, 54; conspires with 
Arab -Moors, 54, 55 

Junis Ibn, proves obliquity of Earth's ecliptic, 


KADDISH, meaning of, 72. 

Kepler, alludes to discovery of Levi ben 

Gerson. 1 18. 

Kliozars Jewish kingdom of, described, 79. 
Kiddush. described, 72 78 
Koran, its place in Mohammedan worship. 

39 40; selections from it, 40. 41,42, written 

by angel Gabriel, 43. 
Korrah Ibn, applies Algebra to Geometry, 


LABRATDunnsh ben, poet and grammarian, 44. 
Laplace refers to Ibn Musa's astronomical 

theories. 118. 
Las Navas, battle of. decides fate of Moors, 

Lead, its chemical affinity determined by 

Jews and Moors. 120 
Leather, exlensiveiy manufactured by Jews 

and Moors, 165. 
Levi ben Gershon, honorably mentioned by 

Kepler, 118. 
Libraries, great abundance of, in Moorish 

caliphate. 12$ 
Light, theory of refraction and itscurvilinear 

paths determined by Jews and Moors 118. 
Linen, extensively manufactured by Jews and 

Moors, 164. 

Llorent >. on the Inquisition, 182. 
Loretto, house of Virgin deposited there by 

angels, 23. 

Louis de Parre, a Jew, of the crew of Colum- 
bus (the first European) who steps upon 

the American soil, igz. (Note.) 



Luxury, its indulgence hastens Moorish de- 
cline 171. 


MAI.MOMDES, his position in Jewish litera- 
ture, 109. 156; coveted as body physicians 
by great potentates, 109; accepts position 
with Sultan Saladin, 109; summoned to 
the sick bed of Richard Coeur de Lion, 
king of England, for consultation, 109; his 
contribution to medical science. 156. 

^ agnet, introduced by Jews and Moors. 165. 

Manoel, king of Portugal, favorably disposed 
towards lews. 215; marriage proposed be- 
tween him and daughter of Ferdinand and 
Isabella, 216; expulsion of Jews from 
Portugal required in his marriage contract, 
2i6; he consents.2l7;surpassesTorquemada 
in cruely 217-218. 

Manufacture, extensively carried on by [ews 

and Moors, 164. 

Manuscripts, destroyed by Church 1g. 
Mariners, c<>nipa>s introduced by Jews and 

Moors, 165. 

Mary St., of Egypt, her asceticism, 16. 
Menachem ben Saruk, compiles first Hebrew 

Lexicon, 44. 

Menasseh ben Israel, pleads with Oliver 

Cromwell for settlement of Jews in England, 


Meciinih al Zohar. the caliph's palace, 46. 
Medicine, cultivated by Jews and Moors, 

102; reasons why Jews excelled in medical 

sciences, 106. 

Meuicis, imitate example of Caliphs, 125. 
f ezquita of Cordova, description of. 38. 
Mineral, riches of Spain, 163. 164. 
Miracles, wrought by clergy. 23. 
Mohammed, miracles accompany his birth, 

50; his conquests, 51. 
Mohammedanism, its creed, 42, inspiration 

claimed for it, 42. 
Montpellier. seat of the most famous medical 

school of Middle Ages, 108. 
Monts de piete, houses of loaning on pledges 

established by Bernardin de Feltre in 

opposition to Jewish banking houses, note. 

169; abandoned as a failure, note, 170. 
Moors, (see Arab-Moors.) 
"More Nebuchim" greatness of 156. 
Moses ben Chanoch, (see Chanoch). 
Mosque, (see Mezquita). 
Mountains, their origin geologically accounted 

lor, 120. 
Mu>ulbn Nosseyr, invades Spain, 54; dis- 

patcher Tarik for conquest of Andalusia, 55. 
Museum of Alexandria, l.",3. 
Muezzin's, call for prayer, 37. 
Musa Ibii, mathematician, credited with 

invention of Algebra 116 his astronomic \\ 

researches accepted by La Place. 118; 

determ nes the dimunition and eccentricity 

of earths's orbit, 118. 


NAPLES, accepts exiled Jews, 212. 
Narbonne, school established in. by Nathan 

ben Isaac Kohen, 65; becomes the seat of 

a famous medical school. 
Nathan, Rabbi, Dayan of Jews of Cordova, 

H6;resigns in favor of Moses ben Chanoch.67 
Navigation, extensively carried on by Jews 

and Moors, 166. 
New Platonism, its mysticism no permanent 

influence upon Jews, 153 
New Christians, name of Jews who feigned 

allegiance to Christianity, 177,178; charges 

against them 180. 
Nitric Acid, discovered by Jews and Moors. 

1 20. 


OBSERVATORY, first observatory in Europe 

built at Seville, 119. 
Opus Majus, of Roger Bacon permeated by 

Averroism, 158. 
Orient,, conducive to religious speculation, 

but not to philosophy, 150. 


PADUA, university of admits Averroism in its 
curriculum of studies 158, 

Paper invented and manufactured by Jews 
and Moors, 165. 

Paradise, Mohammedan conception of, 4^ 

Paul III, pope, favorable to Jews, 218 

Pendulum clock, invented by Jews and Moors 

Pernel St., cures ague, 107. 

Pharmacy, first introduced in Europe by 
Moors, no. 

Philosophy, cultivated by Jews and Moors, 
148, 155; not a favored study with Orien- 
tals, 150. 

Physicians. Jewish physicans excel, no; 
opposed by church, 107-108; Jewish phy- 
sicians preferred by popes and kings. 107- 

Plague, breaks out in Portugal and Jews 
held responsible, 213. 

Platonic philosophy exercises no lasting in- 
fluence upon Jews, 151. 

Poetry, reasons for its flourishing among Jews 



and Moors, 127; its influence upon European 

literature, 127-128; its sacred characten 

among Jews, .29-137. 
Portugal, exiled Spanish Jews permitted an 

eight month's sojourn, 213; its cruelty 

against Jews; 215-218. 
Prayer, its significance with Moors. 37-52. 
Profatius Duran, president of medical school 

of Montpellier, 118; honorably mentioned 

by Copernicus. Ii8. 
Ptolemy, author oi the Syntaxes, 150. 
Pythagorian. philosophy, 151. 

QUADRATIC equations, first taught by Ibn 

Musa, 116. 
Quick silver, its chemical affinity determined, 

120; successfully mined, 164. 


RASHI (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac) distin- 
guished surgeon and commentator, 108. 

Relics, traffic in,- by Church, 22; applied to 
cure disease, 107. 

Renaissance, stimulated by Averroism, 158. 

Roderick, his crime. 54; his defeat, 56. 

Rome, entrance of Jews into, 87. 

Roshd Ibn (see Averroes). 

Rumachis Ibn, captures the four Rabbis, 65. 

SABBATH, its observance among Jews, 58, 69, 
Sahal Abraham Ibn, his poetry prohibited. 

Sahamaria ben Elchanan, one of the four 

captured Rabbis, 65; establishes a school 

in Kahira. 67. 

Science, introduced in Europe by Arab- 
Moors. 112. 
Serapion of Alexandria, gathering place for 

the learned, 149. 

Sid Isaac ben prepares Alphonsin tables, 119 
Silk, extensively manufactured by Jews and 

Moors, 164. 

Silver, its chemical affinity determined, I2o. 
Silvia, her asceticism. 16. 
Sinai Ibn, (see Avicennn). 
Sixtus. fifth, favors the Jews, 170. (Note.) 
Social life, in Europe during Dark Ages. 14. 
Socratic Philosophy, contrasted with that 

of Aristotle, 151. 
Song, challenge, described, 35. 

Spain, during Dark Ages 5 11.34, 90; invasion 
of by Moors, 46-57, enacts cruel laws 
against Jews, 92-96; inquisition established 
in, 171; Jews expelled from it; 189; sufier* 
because of expulsion of Jews and Moors, 

Specific Gravity, tables constructed. 120. 

Sninoza influenced by Averroism. 158 

Steam engine, invented by Hero and Ctesi 
bius, 150. 

Story-telling, cultivated by Moors 127, in- 
flueuce upon European literature, 128. 

Sublimation, apparatus for, invented by 
Jews and Moors. 120. 

Sulphuric acid, discovered by Jews and 
Moors, 120. 

Sun, its spots noted by Averroes, 118. 

Superstition, in Europe during Dark Ages, 23. 

Swords, Jews and Moors skilled in their 
manufacture, 165. 

Sylvester II,- pope, studies philosophy at 
Seville, 155. 

Synagogue, of Cordova described, 58. 

Syntaxes, written by Ptolemy in Alexandria. 

TARIK, invades Spain, 55. 

Tibbon Ibn, insists upon study of Botany for 
medical purposes, 109. 

Time, computed by Jews and Moors. 118. 

Tin, its chemical affinity determined, ]2J. 

Torquemada, the inquisitor, 79; his cruel- 
ties, 79; resolves to expel Tews from 
Spain, Igltconquors che ,-cruj les oflsabella, 
1 9 6. 

Trigonometry, improved by Moors, 116. 

Turkey, welcomes exiled Spanish Jews. 2l2, 



USQUE. Samuel, describes the Iquisition, 

74; suffers death by it, 174. 
United States, prosperity of Jews in, 219. 


WITCHES, burning of described. 27. 
Women, burnt as witches, 27; not permitted 

by Jews and Moors to worship with the 

men, 38, 86. 
Worhsip. among Moors and Jews described, 

37, 40, 69.